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U.S. Department of Justice 
Federal Bureau of Investigation 








Origins ^ 

Bonaparte and Roosevelt. . .The Progressive Era. .. Congressional 
Action Leads to Bonaparte's Creation of the Special Agent Force... 
The "Bureau of Investigation" Commences.... 

Early Davs .- 2 

First Work in Antitrust, Peonage, and Land Fraud.... the Mann 
Act. . .Espionage, Sabotage, Selective Service. .. National Motor 
Vehicle Theft Act.... 

The "Lawless" Years .•• \ 3 

Prohibition. . .The Roaring Twenties .. .J. Edgar Hoover 
Director... A New Bureau. .. Fingerprint Card Collection Eegun. 

The New Deal c 

Federal Kidnaping Statute. . .May-June Crime Bills ... Federal Eu^e=u 
of Investigation Gets Its Name... the National Academy ... the FEI 
Laboratory. . .Uniform Crime Reporting Program.... 

World War II Period .' 

* c 

Roosevelt Strengthens FBI's National Securitv ^beta- 
Responsibilities. . .Eight Nazi Saboteurs... Soecial" T nt .= -i licence 
Service Scuth of the Border,*. . Number cf FEI Emolcve— G-o'v- 
Dramatically. ... - " 

Postwar Ame rica 

— " "■ 10 

Concern Over Communism. . .Atomic Energy Act . . .Backgroun 
Investigations Grow. . .Rise in Organized Crime, civil Riaht 
Investigations.... .. ^J-uirc 

The Vietnam War Fr? 


JFK Assassination. . .An Unpopular War Leads To Confrontation 
Unrest, Violence. . .Death of J. Edgar Hoover ... Enter L. Patrick 
Gray. . .Appointment of First Women Special Agents in Modern 
Bureau. . . . 
Aftermath of Watergate , _ 

' 15 

Gray Leaves... William D. Ruckleshaus. . .Clarence M. Kelley Becomes 

Director. . .Introduction of Modern Management Technioues, "Oualitv 

. Over Quantity" ' '. v y 

The Rise of International Crime . _ # 16 

William H. Webster Becomes Director. . .Terrorism Strikes 
home... Foreign Counterintelligence, Organized Crime, Financial 
Crime, Drug Trafficking 

The Post-Cold War Wor ld 


National Security Redefined. .. Street Crime ... "Crime in the 
Suites"... National Security Threat List.... 

Recent Years: 1993- 

— 19 

A^ U Fr/;/n eah — r " In AS Direct °r- •• Reorganization of the FSI in 

^th nt-h Do ^ sl2 ^g... Diversity in the Ranks. . .Greater Cooperation 

PP p r ^encies... Increased Focus on International OrcLnizeS 

Crime. ..Preparing for Future Crime.... * a 


The FBI originated from a force of Special Agents 
created in 19 08 by Attorney General Charles Bonaparte during the 
Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. The two men first met when they 
both spoke at a meeting of the Baltimore Civil Service Reform 
Association. Roosevelt, then Civil Service Commissioner, boasted 
of his reforms in federal law enforcement. It was 1892, a time 
when law enforcement was often political rather than professional 
Roosevelt spoke with pride of his insistence that --Border Patrol 
applicants pass marksmanship tests, with the most accurate gettina 
the jobs. Following Roosevelt on the program, Bonaparte countered" 
tongue in cheek, that target shooting was not the way to get'the 
best men. "Roosevelt should have had the men shoot at each other 
and given the jobs to the survivors." ' 

Roosevelt and Bonaparte both were "Progressives " 
They shared the conviction that efficiency and expertise not 
political connections, should determine who could best se^'ve in 
government. Theodore Roosevelt became President - of the Unite- 
States m 1901; four years later, he appointed Bonaparte to be 
Attorney General. m 1908, Bonaparte applied that Progressive 
philosophy to the Department of Justice by creating a corp* of 
Special Agents. It had neither a name nor an officially cesicnate^ 
leader other than the Attorney General. Yet, these f^ 
oetectives and Secret Service men were the forerunners of the FBI* 

ne-ds a T ?^'?° St Ame ff can f ts *e for granted that our country 
offvi-t f f ae ^l investigative service, but in 1908 the 
establishment of this kind of agency at a national level was hichlv 
controversial. The U.S. Constitution is based on "federalism" 5 a 
national government with jurisdiction over matte-s that crossJ 
boundaries, like interstate commerce and foreign affairs with -11 
other powers reserved to the states. Throuah e ', c ^ 
usually looked to cities, counties, and states to fu'lfUl ' 
government responsibilities. However, by the 20th century eaSie- 
favorabfe^o" \ n ^™ c f-- had C ^ d £ ^-^ct'ooln n 
i^Sg^e tadWo^" 1 5 °™ nt ^abashing a strong 

The impulse aiaonc the^Ame^ican nenni c *. nt .- rr = _ _ 

j.^.^^. unci. ib Knovn as the Pmnrpccuo -c-v-^ ^ 
approximately 1900 to ie>i a Thp Vrr Z^Z 5- 9ressive Era, from. 

that governor intervention' v^^^V^^i^"^ 
inaustnal society. Moreover, it looked to ••everts" in el 1 „" 
of industry and government to produce that ju?t"ocie? y ? P 

national X"""** ^edera^ inv"? ■ "J?" ^ogressivisa at the 
well-disciplined' everts* ^des^gne^^f^ht ^runt^ ^ ■ ° f 
fit Roosevelt's Progressive scheme of tv S a "? "xne 
General Bonaparte shared his President's pVo'gTeTsTv'e P hiloso P h7 

However, the Department of Justice under Bonaparte" had no 
investigators of its . own except for a few Special Agents who 
carried, out specific assignments for the Attorney General, and a 
force of Examiners (trained as accountants) who review'ed the 
financial transactions of the federal courts. Since its beginning 
in 1870, the Department of Justice used funds appropriated to 
investigate federal crimes to hire private detectives first and 
■later investigators frprn other federal agencies. (Federal crimes 
are those that were considered interstate or occurred on federal 
government reservations.) 

By 1907, the Department of Justice most frequently called 
upon Secret Service "operatives" to conduct investigations. "These 
men were well-trained, dedicated — and expensive. .Moreover they 
reported not to the Attorney General, but to the Chief o'f the 
Secret Service. This situation frustrated Bonaparte, who wanted 
complete control of investigations under his jurisdiction 
Congress provided the impetus for Bonaparte to acquire his own 
force on Kay 27, 1908, it enacted a law preventing the Department 
or Justice from engaging Secret Service operatives. 

The following month, Attorney General Bonaparte aDpointo- 
a force of Special Agents within the Department of- Justice" 
ntn^r% y ' ^ en T fo f mer SG =ret Service employees and a number of 
?^!^ men ^ ° f K Justlce peonage (i.e., compulsory servitude) 
investigators became Special Agents of the Department of Justice 
On July 26, 190S, Bonaparte ordered them to report to Chief 
Examiner Stanley W. Finch. This action is celebrated as the 
beginning of the FBI. ' r Iea £s the 

d™ i*. B °l h Attorne y General Bonaparte and President Theodore 
t^The%™ C °^ P ^ ed >- their terES in * Srch 1909 > recorded 


When the Bureau was established, the-e were few f e Hp«i 


aune isio ^^^ r ,^S^^±.f a fS a jurisdiction cane in 
. cri*e to transport ^L^tt ££ }£s Tol Saorai ^PoLs" 

It also provided a tool by which the federal government could 
investigate criminals who evaded state laws but had no other 
federal violations. Finch became Commissioner of White Slavery Act 
violations in 1912, and former Special Examiner A. Bruce Eielas'ki 
became the new Bureau of Investigation Chief. 

Over the next few years, the number of Special Agents 
grew to more than 3 00,., and these individuals were complemented by 
• another 3 00 support employees. Field offices existed from the 
Bureau's inception. Each field operation was controlled by a 
Special Agent in Charge who was responsible to Washington. Most 
field offices were located in major cities. However, several were 
located near the Mexican border where they concentrated on 
smuggling, neutrality violations, and intelligence collection 
often in connection with- the Mexican revolution."- ' 

With the April 1917 entry of the United States into World 
War I during Woodrow Wilson's administration, the Bureau's work was 
increased again. As a result of the war, the Bureau acqu^ e ^ 
responsibility for the Espionage, Selective Service, and Sabctsce 
Acts, and assisted the Department of Labor by inves'tigatina enemy 
aliens. During these years Special Agents with cene-al 
investigative experience and facility in certain lancuaces 
augmented the Bureau. ■-..-= 

_ William J. Flynn, former head of the Secret Se-vice 
became Director of the Bureau of Investigation in July 1919 and was 
the first to use that title. In October 1919, passage of the 

"SoS-VT^ Ve H hic K 1 t Theft "* ^ve the Bureau'o? Inve'sticatiSn 
another tool by which to prosecute criminals who previously evaded 
the law by crossing state lines. With the return of the country to 
•'normalcy' under President Warren G. Harding in 1921, the Eure = u o? 
fede e ?ai 5 crlL n / etUrned t0 itS P ™ « le ^ fi ^ing the^v 


The years from 1921 to 1933 were sometime called -h- 
P^hihfti yearS H beCaUSe ° f gangsterism and the public disregard fc- 

S^S^SiSS! crea^a^ Sral Slum M?^ 

jurisdictifn^cifled^ror 5 creatTv? M^LL" ^Th ^ l0Cal in 
Investigation had limited success us inn u e ? ■ BUreaU of 

investigate some of 'thl ^SE^TS? ^"n^^S^V 
gSS?'^ ^ Ves ;!^ted Al capone as a "fugitive federal witnei°» 
Feaer.l investigation of a resurgent white supremacy nolellntll'so 

. required creativity. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) , dormant since the 
late 1800s, was revived in part to counteract the economic gains 
made by" African Americans during World War I. The Eureau of 
Investigation used the Mann Act to bring Louisiana's philanderina 
KKK "Imperial Kleagle" to justice. 

Through these investigations and through more traditional 

investigations of nuetrality violations and antitrust violations 

■the Bureau of Investigation gained stature. Although the Harding 

Administration suffered from unqualified and sometimes corrupt 

■ officials, the Progressive Era reform tradition continued among the 

professional Department of Justice Special Agents. The new Bureau 

of Investigation Director, William J. Burns, who had previously run 

his own detective agency, appointed 26-year-old J. Edgar Hoover as 

Assistant Director. Hoover, a graduate of George Washington 

University Law School, had worked for the Department of Justice 

since 1917, where he headed the enemy alien operations during World 

War I and assisted in the General Intelliaence Division unde- 

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, investigating suspected 

anarchists and communists. 

After Harding died in 1923, his successor, Calvin 
Cooliuge, appointed replacements for Hardina's cronies in 
the Cabinet. For the new Attorney General, Coolidae aooointed 
attorney Harlan Fiske Stone. Stone then, on Kay 10, 1924 sele-te" 
Hoover to head the Bureau of Investigation. By inclination "and 
training, Hoover embodied the Procressive tradition Kis 
appointment ensured that the Bureau of Investiaation would >-ee- 
that tradition alive. ' " ~ 

When Hoover took over, the Eureau of Investiaation ha- 
approximately 650 employees, including 441 Special *qents He 
immediately fired those Agents he considered unaualifiea and 

^Tf. A K Pr ° feSSi0nali2e the organization. For example, Hoover 
abolished the seniority rule of promotion and introduced uniforr 
?-jf° rm n a f n f Ce appraisals. Regular inspections of Headquarters and 
field office operations were scheduled. New Agents -had to be 
between 25 and 35 years old. Then, in January 192E Hoove- 
established a formal training course for new Aaents ' K e - 
returnea to the earlier preference for Special Aa'ents with lawi- 
accounting experience. " 

The new Director was also keenly aware that the Eu-e=u c*= 
Investigation could not fight crime without public suooort In 
remarks prepared for the Attorney General in 1925, he wVote "The 
itS \ZIM EUr£ ^ ° f Invest ig*tion have been impressed with the 
fn^n ;l real problem of law enforcement is in trying to 
obtain the cooperation and sympathy of the public and that thev 

^^^t^e^bl^^"^ 00 UntU *"* thrives -mSt'tS 

Also in the early days of Hoover's directorship, a long 


held goal of American law enforcement was achieved: the 
establishment of an Identification Division. Tracking criminals by 
means of identification records had been considered a crucial tool 
of law enforcement since the 19th century, and matchina 
fingerprints was considered the most accurate method. Ey 1922" 
many large cities had started their own fingerprint collections.' 

In keeping with the Progressive Era tradition of federal 
assistance to localities, the Department of Justice created" a 
Bureau of Criminal Identification in 1905 in order to provide a 
centralized reference collection of fingerprint cards. In 19 07 
the collection was moved, as a money-saving measure, to Leavenworth 
Federal -Penitentiary, ' where it was staffed by convict^ 
Understandably suspicious of this .arrangement, police departments 
formed their own centralized identification bureau maintained* by 
the International Association of Chiefs of Police. It refused to 
share its data with the Bureau of Criminal Investigation. In 19 2 4 
Congress was persuaded to merge the two collections in Washinaton' 
D.C., under Bureau of Investigation administration. As a result' 
law enforcement agencies across the country began contribute' 
tmgerprint cards to the Eureau of Investigation by 1926. 

• <--,. 4.. By , ^ he end of the d ecade, Special Acent traininc va 
institutionalized, the field office inspection system was solid! 
i^ft-- "' f n ?- e Identi fic£tion Division was functioning In 
2 1 i 1 ° n '. St f le£ Were unde ^Y that would lead to the creation cf 
the Technical Laboratory and Uniform Crime Resorts. The Bureau w 
equipped to end the "lawless years." * V ' as 




f cucht 

-„ P1 - nc *. „ Notin 9 the widespread interest of the media in this w-r- 

agency's wcS^S £°£L\ t ^S rin ^ iT^tl^g? 1 ? hi » 
Aaents had develoDed an ^nr-ii- a~ ~ T 1 rr to 1933 / Bureau 

them interchangeable 1 ^^l^r%I^!\^ s ^^ ic ^ s ^^ 
later, mere identification with the FBT u« f yearS 

pride to its employees and ™ - I • H source °f special 

respect from the public? c °™*naed instant recognition and 

During the early and mid-l930s several crucial decisions 
solidified the Bureau's position as the nation's premier law 
enforcement agency. In 1932, Congress passed a federal kidnapping 
statute. Then in May and June 1934, with gangsters like John 
Dillinger evading capture by crossing over state lines, it passed 
a number of federal crime laws that significantly enhanced the 
Bureau's jurisdiction. Congress also gave Bureau Agents statutory 
authority to carry guns and make arrests. 

The Bureau of Investigation was renamed the United States 
Bureau of Investigation on July 1, 1932. Then, beginning July i, 
1933, the Department of Justice experimented for almost two years 
with_ a Division of Investigation that included the Eureau of 
Prohibition. Public confusion between Bureau of Investigation 
Special Agents and Prohibition Agents led to a permanent name 
change in 1935 for the agency composed of Department of Justice's 
investigators: the Federal Bureau of Investigation was thus born. 

Contributing to its forensic expertise, the Bureau 
established its Technical Laboratory in 1932. Journalist Rex 
Collier called it "a novel research laboratory where government 
criminologists will match wits with underworld cunnina*. " 
Originally the small laboratory operated strictly as a research 
facility. However, it benefitted from expanded federal funding, 
eventually housing specialized microscopes and extensive reference 
collections of guns, watermarks, typefaces, and automobile tire 

Also in 193 5, the FBI National Academy was established to 
train police officers in modern investigative methods, since at 
that time only a few states and localities provided formal traininc 
to their peace officers. The National Academy tauaht investicativ 


techniques to police officials throughout the United States' a 
starting in the 1940s, from all over the world. 

_ The legal tools given to the FBI by Conaress, as well a= 
Eureau initiatives to upgrade its own professionalism and that of 
law enforcement, resulted in the arrest or demise of all the maicr 
gangs wers by 1936. By that time, however, Fascism in Adclcr 
y ! r L G *F*? n Y and Benito Mussolini's Italy and Communis in 
Josef_ Stalin's Soviet Union threatened American democratic 
principles. With war on the horizon, a new set of challence- face- 
tne FdI . "" - ~ ^^ 


Germany, Italy, and Japan embarked on an unchecked se-ies 

?LTntn^ n vf r dU f ing - the ^ £te 193Q - S ' Hitler and Mussolini suDported 

"Lovalist" J*? n h 91StS ln thelr - success ^l civil war aaainst tSe 

Loyalist Spanish government (1937-39). Although many' Europeans 

and North Americans considered the Spanish Civil War an opportunity 
to destroy Fascism, the United States, Great Britain, and France 
remained neutral; only Russia supported the Loyalists. To the 
shock of those who admired Russia for its active opposition to 
Fascism, Stalin and Hitler signed a nonaggression pact in August 

1939. The following month, Hitler seized Poland, and Russia took 
Finland and the Baltic States. Great Britain and France declared 
war on Germany, which formed the "Axis" with Japan and Italy- -and 
World War II began. The United States, however, continued to 
adhere to the neutrality acts it had passed in the mid-1930s. 

As these events unfolded in Europe, the American 
Depression continued.' The Depression provided as fertile an 
environment for radicalism in the United States as it did in 
Europe. European Fascists had their counterparts and supporters in 
the United States in the German-American Bund, the Silver Shirts, 
and similar groups. At the same time, labor unrest, racial 
disturbances, and sympathy for the Spanish Loyalists presented an 
unparalleled opportunity for the American Communist Party to gain 
adherents. The FEI was alert to these Fascist: and Communist grouos 
as. threats to American security. 

Authority to investigate these organizations came in 1S3S 
with President Roosevelt's authorization through Secretary of State 
Cordell Hull. A 1939 Presidential Directive further strengthened 
the FBI's authority to investigate subversives in the United 
States, and Congress reinforced it by passing the Smith Act in 

1940, outlawing advocacy of violent overthrow of the gcvemme 


With the actual outbreak of war in 1939, the 
responsibilities of the FBI escalated. Subversion, sabotage, and 
espionage became major concerns. In addition to Agents trained in 
general intelligence work, at least one Agent trained in defense 
plant protection was placed in each of the FBI's 42 field offices. 
The FBI also developed a network of informational sources, often 
using members of fraternal or veterans' organizations. With leads 
developed by these intelligence networks and through their own 
work, Special Agents investigated potential threats tc national 

Great Eritain stood virtually alone against the Axis 
powers after France fell to the Germans in 1940. ~An Axis victory 
in Europe and Asia would threaten democracy in North America. 
Eecause of the Nazi -Soviet Pact, the American Communist Party and 
its sympathizers posed a double-edged threat to American interests. 
Under the direction of Russia, the American Communist Party 
vigorously advocated continued neutrality for the United States. 


In 1940 and 1941, the United States moved further and 
further away from neutrality, actively aiding the Allies. In late 
1940, Congress reestablished the draft. The FBI was responsible 
for locating draft evaders and deserters. 

Without warning, the Germans attacked Russia on "June 22, 
1941. Thereafter, the FBI focused its internal security efforts on 
potentially dangerous German, Italian, and Japanese nationals as 
well as native-born Americans whose beliefs and activities aided 
the Axis powers . 

The FBI also participated in intelligence collection. 
. Here the Technical Laboratory played a pioneering role. Its highly 
skilled and inventive staff cooperated with engineers, scientists, 
and cryptographers in other agencies to enable the United States to 
penetrate and sometimes control the flow of information from the 
belligerents in the Western Hemisphere. 

•Sabotage investigations were another FBI responsibility. 
In June 1942, a major, yet unsuccessful, attempt at sabotage was 
made on American soil. Two German submarines let off four 
saboteurs each at Amagansett, Long Island, and Ponte Vedra Beach, 
Florida. These men had been trained by Germany in explosives, 
chemistry, secret writing, and how to blend into American 
surroundings. While still in German clothes, the .New York croup 
encountered a Coast Guard sentinel patrolling the beach, who 
ultimately allowed them to pass. However, afraid of capture, 
saboteur George Dasch turned himself in — and assisted the FBI in 
locating and arresting the rest of the team. 

All were tried shortly afterward by a military tribunal 
and found guilty. Six who did not cooperate 'with the U.S. 
Government were executed a few days later. The others were 
sentenced to life imprisonment, but were returned to Germany after 
the' war. The swift capture of these Nazi saboteurs helped to allay 
fear of Axis subversion and bolstered Americans' faith in the FEI. 

_ Even before U.S. entry into the War, the FBI uncovered a 
major espionage ring. This group, the Frederick Duguesne spy ring, 
was the largest one discovered up to that time. The *FBI was 
assisted by a loyal American with German relatives who acted as a 
double agent. For nearly two years the FBI ran a radio station fcr 
him, learning what Germany was sending to its spies in the United 
States while controlling the information that was being transmitted 
to Germany. The investigation led to the arrest and conviction cf 
33 spies. 

W£ r for the United States began December 7, 1941, when 
Japanese armed forces attacked ships" and facilities at ' Pearl 
Harbor, Hawaii. The United States immediately declared war on 
Japan, and the next day Germany and Italy declared war on the 
United States. Ey 9:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, on December 7, 
theFBI was in a wartime mode. FBI Headquarters and the 54 field 
offices were placed on 2 4 -hour schedules. On December 7- and 8, the 
FEI arrested previously identified aliens who threatened national 
security and turned them over to military or immicration 
authorities . 

At this time, the FBI augmented its Agent force with 
National-Academy graduates, who took an abbreviated training 
course. ' As a result, the total number of FBI employees rose from 
7,400 to over 13,000, including approximately 4,000 Agents, by the 
end of 1943. 

Traditional war-related investigations did not occupy all 
-the FBI's time. For "example, the Bureau continued to carry out 
civil rights investigations. Segregation, which was legal at the 
time, was the rule in the Armed Services and in virtually the 
entire defense industry in the 1940s. Under pressure from African- 
American organizations, the President appointed a Fair Employment 
Practices Commission (FEPC) . The FEPC had no enforcement 
authority. However, the ( FEI could arrest individuals who impeded 
the war effort. The Bureau assisted the FEPC when a Philadelphia 
transit workers' union went out on strike against an FEPC 
desegregation order. The strike ended when it appeared that the 
FBI was about to arrest its leaders. 

The most serious discrimination during World War II was 
the decision to evacuate Japanese nationals and American citizens 
of Japanese descent from the West Coast and send them to internment 
camps. Because the FBI had arrested the individuals whom it 
considered security threats, FBI Director Hoover took the position 
that confining others was unnecessary. The President and Attorney 
General, however, chose to support the military assessment that 
evacuation and internment were imperative. Ultimately, the FEI 
became responsible for arresting curfew and evacuation violators. 

While most FBI personnel during the war worked 
traditional war-related or criminal cases, one contingent of Agents 
was uniaue. SeDarated from Rnrp?n rnllc th&c& irront-c t.-i+-h -t-K^ 

in 1940, the SIS was to provide information on Axis activities in 
South America and to destroy its intelligence and propaganda 
networks. Several hundred thousand Germans or German descendants 
and numerous Japanese lived 'in South America. They provided prc- 
•Axis pressure and cover for Axis communications facilities. 
Nevertheless, in every South -American country, the SIS was 
instrumental in bringing about a situation in which, by 1944, 
continued support for the Nazis*'became intolerable or impractical! 

In April 1945, President Roosevelt died, and 
Vice President Harry Truman took office as President. Before the 
end of the month, Hitler committed suicide and the German commander 
in Italy surrendered. Although the May 1945 surrender of Germany 
ended the war in Europe, war continued in the Pacific until Auaust 
14, 1945. 

The world that the FBI faced in September 194 5 was very 
different from' the world of 1939 when the war began. American 

• ls °latiomsm had effectively ended, and, economically, the 
Lnited States had become the world's most powerful nation At 
home, organized labor had achieved a strong foothold; African 
Americans and women, having tasted equality during wartime* labor 
shortages, had developed aspirations and the means of achieving the 
goals that these groups had lacked before the war. The American 

•- Communist Party possessed an unparalleled confidence while 

overseas the Soviet Union strengthened its grasp on the countries 

.it: had wrested from German occupation—making it plain that its 

plans to expand Communist influence had not abated. And hanaina 

' cTnn* ^ * u P h . oria of a v °nd once more at peace was the mushroom 
cloud of atomic weaponry. 


irrnHpH t-hS T / h J uar y 1946 sts lin gave a public address in which he 
implied that future wars were inevitable until Communism reolaced 

"orgress 5 ^ Sta?r ^"^ , in ™ * nd North America convinced 
The Rn«,- - ln £S WeU ° n hlS Vay to achievina his coal 

LLso "h f eVented thS United Nations from =«rbina Soviet 
expansion under its auspices. " WVJ - e - 

Europe ^"^"A ***"*■, Communist expansion was not -limited to 
fnJfS- i I J 1S . 47 ' £m P le evidence existed that p r c-covi P - 

with the pfr r»S- ! offices of Amerasia, a magazine concerned 

ci:^ £ \ - -' and dlscove red a large number of cla^sifie^ 
f^fL ° e P"t B ent documents. Several months later ten- 

SHS ^--^^- aS? o : 

current propaganda (.'fallow travil^^ a?reea "^ thsir 

investicate^^soe'tZi ^ ^ ' a " d its Predecessor agencies ha 
acain i'n 1947 ^Vl!^^ * S?10 P £ ? e £nd sabotage 

again in 1943, Presidential dirprtfv™ ? sabota Se. In 1S39 and 
carry out investicat^ the FBI to 

role was clarified and pvtJtS 5 . national security. This 
Dwight D. Eisenhower ty S fo^^' /residents Truman and 
with information about suSve?siie activTtY^ I ^"^f individual 
to the FBI. A poster to that £ I ^ S Urged to re ?°rt it 

departments throughout the c OUn t rv "th dlStributed to Police 

country. At the same time, it warned 


Americans to "avoid reporting malicious gossip or idle rumors." 

The FBI's authority to conduct background investigations 
on present and prospective government employees also expanded 
dramatically in the postwar years. The 194 6 Atomic Energy Act gave 

• the FBI "responsibility ^f or determining the loyalty of individuals 
; . .having access to restricted Atomic Energy data." Later 
, executive orders from both Presidents Truman and Eisenhower gave 
the FBI responsibility for investigating allegations of disloyalty 

, among federal employees. In these cases, the agency requesting the 
investigation made the final determination; the FBI only conducted 
the investigation and reported the results. 

Many suspected j and convicted spies, such as Julius and 
Ethel Rosenberg, had been' federal employees. Therefore, background 
investigations were considered to be just as vital as cracking 
major espionage cases. 

Despite the threats to the United States of subversion 
and espionage, the FBI's extended jurisdiction, and the time- 
consuming nature of background investigations, the Bureau did not 
surpass the number of Agents it had during World War II — or its 
yearly wartime budget — until the Korean War in the early 1950s. 
After the Korean War ended, the number of Agents stabilized at 
about 6,200, while the budget began a steady climb in 1957. 

Several factors converged to undermine domestic Communism 
in the 1950s. Situations like the Soviet defeat of the Kunaarian 
rebellion in 1956 caused many members to abandon the £Tie*-ican 
Communist Party. However, the FBI also played a role in 
aimmishmg Party influence. The Bureau was responsible for the 
investigation and arrest of alleged spies and Smith Act violator^ 
most of whom were convicted. Through Hoover's speeches articles' 
testimony, and books like Masters of Deceit , the FBI helped ale-t 
the public to the Communist threat. 

The FBI's role in fighting crime also expanded in the 
postwar period through 'its assistance to state and local law- 
enforcement and through increased jurisdictional responsibility. 

er .- ble , thp Ad A nc l e£ . in forensic science and technical development 
enabled the Fcl to cevote a significant proc-crtion of its re-ourc-s 
to assisting state and local law enforcement agencies. One"method 
c, continuing assistance was through. the National Academy. £nothe- 
soIveth U e?r cases^^ rSS ° UrCeS to hel P ***** and localities 

A dramatic example of aid to a state occurred after the 
miaair explosion of a plane over Colorado in 1955. The FBI 
Laboratory examined hundreds of airplane parts, pieces of car 

Evidence "oTT^boSb^l ° f '"f^"- « Pie«d tcgetn^r 

evidence of a bomb explosion from passenger luggage, then 


painstakingly looked into the backgrounds of the 44 "victims 
Ultimately, Agents identified the perpetrator and secured his 
confession, then turned the case over to Colorado authorities who 
successfully prosecuted it in a state court. 

. At the sajne time, Congress gave the FBI new federal Ipwc 
•gambli W n hlCh tG ^^ -"^ rlghtS violations < racketeering, and 

• ,-<„>,♦. u X to L this time / the interpretation of federal civil 
rights statutes by the Supreme Court was so narrow that few crimes 
however heinous, qualified to be investigated by federal agents.' 

The turning point in federal civil right* action* 
r °^ e V ln th l SUmmet of 1964 < vith the murder of 
rh?i 10n V ^ r . k , er / Mlchael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and JamSs 
JusMc^T Ph i la l el Phia, Mississippi. At the Department of 
Justice's request, the FBI conducted the investigation as it had in 
previous less-publicized racial incidents.. The case aoains? the 
perpetrators took years to go through the courts. Only arte" 19 6 6 
. 6 n n r e Supreme Court made it clear that federal law could be used 
to Prosecute civil rights violations, were seven men found cuilty 

fnd ? S f e 196 ° S ' the conflue ^ e of unambiguous federal authority 
v lo a c ; ^l.^pport for civil rights prosecutions allowed the 

I, on 1U6ntial , r ° le in ensb ling African Americans to vote 
serve on juries, and use public accommodations on an eaual ba°Is' 

thia H , ^ im Petus for federal legislation occurred in ic 57 V1 > h 
the discovery by Sergeant Croswell of the New York ^tJl I V 
that many of the best known mobsters in the Uni t if c+t \ ° Uce 
together in upstate New York Th^ frt 1 n 1 * ", • States had met 
the individuals identified »4 fS \ J- C ° llect f d ^formation on all 
of a national orga^zed'-cr Se^t^r^Ho^™^ ^ £Xist — 
an FBI Agent persuaded mob insid£ Joseoh ValacM t/t! -^ "I? 11 
the public learned firsthand of the natS-e of La rn - 5 f *' ^ 
American "mafia." J* U ' e Ci La Co£c Ncsrra, the 

(RICO) statute of 1970 alfowad „v " d 5 nd Corru Pt ■ Organizations 
tor all of tneir df"^ 1 ^^^^ J---,- LT^ * 


being linked by a perpetrator or all-encompassing conspiracy. 
Along with greater use of Agents for undercover work by the late 
1970s, these provisions helped the FBI develop cases that, in the 
1980s, put almost all the major traditional crime family heads in 

A national -tragedy produced another expansion of FBI 
jurisdiction. When President Kennedy was assassinated, the crime 
was a local homicide; no federal law addressed the murder of a 
President. Nevertheless, President Lyndon B. Johnson tasked the 
Bureau with conducting the investigation. Congress then passed a 
new law to ensure that any such act in the future would be a 
federal crime. 


President Kennedy's assassination introduced the violent 
aspect of the era known as the "Sixties." This period, which 
actually lasted into the mid-1970s, was characterized by idealism, 
but also by increased urban crime and a propensity for some groups 
to resort to violence in challenging the "establishment.". ' 

Most Americans objecting to involvement in Vietnam or to 
other policies wrote to Congress or carried peace signs in orde-ly 
demonstrations. Nevertheless, in 1S70 alone, an estimated 3 000 
bombings and 50,000 bomb threats occurred in the United States. 

Opposition to the war in Vietnam broucht tocethe- 
numerous^ anti-establishment groups and gave them a common 'coal" 

_ Presidents Johnson and Nixon and Director Hoove- sha-e- 
with many Americans a perception of the potential dance-s to this 
country from some who opposed its policies in Vietnam: £c K oove- 
observed in a 1966 ETA ttaaazinp, article, the United St~t~= va = 
confronted with "a new style in conspiracy— conspiracy that i* 
extremely subtle and devious and hence difficult to"undo--t=nd a 
conspiracy reflected by questionable moods and attitudes "bv 
unrestrained individualism, by nonconf ormism in dress and speW 
even by obscene language, rather than by formal membership"^ 
specific organizations." «=_£.u ip in 

The New Left movement's "romance with violence" involved 
among others, four young men living in Madison, Wisconsin. Antiwar 
?wo of ,h V£S wldes P r « d £t ^ University of Wisconsin (UW) where 
^s° 24 T 9 70 er ?h S ^ dentS ', durlng the Ver * earl y »°rnina o? 
Slino Hail ' U M 6 h ^ U ^L a £° Werful homemade bomb to blow ud 
Sterling Hall, which housed the Army Math Research Center at Uw". 


A graduate student was killed and three others were injur-ed. 

That crime occurred a few months after National Guardsmen 
killed four students and wounded several others during an antiwar 
demonstration at Kent State University. The FBI investigated both 
incidents. Together, these events helped end the "romance with 
violence" for all <but a handful of hardcore New Left 
revolutionaries. Draft dodging and property damage had been 
. tolerable to many antiwar sympathizers. Deaths were not. 

By 1971, with few .exceptions , the most extreme members of 
the antiwar movement concentrated on more peaceable, yet still 
radical tactics, such as the clandestine publication of The 
Pentagon Papers. However, the violent Weathermen and its successor 
groups continued to challenge the FBI into the. 1980s. 

No specific guidelines for FBI Agents coverinc national 
security investigations had been developed by the Administration or 
Congress; these, in fact, were not issued until 1976. Therefore 
the FBI addressed the threats from the militant "New Left" as it 
had those from Communists in the 1950s and the KKK: in the 1960s 
It used both traditional investigative techniques " and 
counterintelligence programs ("Cointelpro") to counteract domestic 
terrorism and conduct investigations of individuals and 
organizations who threatened terroristic violence. WiretaoDinc and 
other intrusive techniques were discouraged by Hoover in* the 'mid- 
1960s and eventually were forbidden comoletely unless they 
conformed to the Omnibus Crime Control Act. Hoover formally 
terminated all "Cointelpro" oper-ations on April 28, 1571. 

• FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover died on May 2, 1^72 iust 
shy of 48 _ years as the FBI Director. He was 77. The next day his 

nnlv I? In ^^ X " the ' Rotunda °* the Capitol, an honor accorded 
only 21 other Americans. 

Hoover's successor would have to contend with the Comdex 
rtZ°l] S that troubled time. In 1972, unlike 1924 when Attorney 
tie frt n *? Flsl 5; Stone selected Hoover, the President wooiSed 
the FBI Director with confirmation by the Senate. President liix-n 

SrtJ" Pat J ick Gra * £S Actin ? Erector the dav after Hoove-" 
death. After retiring from a distinguished Naval career, Gray had 
continued m public servicers the Department of 'justice's 
Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Division. *s Actinc 
^e^os.^^ £pP ° inted the "»* women as Special Agents lincl 

aT . rpc ^ , Shortly after Gray became Acting Director, five men we-e 
arrested photographing documents at the Democratic wSinnli 
The break'? 1" ^ Wate ^ ate "i" Building Jn^aSington Tc 
W^thfn h h tt been aut hori2ed by Republican Party official 
role and 11*' the * h . lte House began its effort to cover un ts 
role, and the new Acting FBI Director was inadvertently dra 

s . 
£.wn into 


it. FBI Agents undertook a thorough investigation of the break in 
and related events. However, when Gray's questionable person?? 
role was revealed, he withdrew his name from the Latp'c 
consideration to be Director. He was replaced hours after hi 
resigned on April 27, 1973, by William Ruckleshaus, a for™^ 
.Congressman and the first head of the Environmental Protect?™ 
•Agency, who remained,' until Clarence Kelley's appointment =2 
' ; reC K° r °" J . UlY 9 ' 1973 - Kelle ^ vho vas Kans * s City Po?S chief 
tS e i961. reCelVedthe £ P pointment ' had been a " FBI Agent from 19^0 


in i-y, „• Thre ^ da yp after Director Kelley's appointment., top aide- 
in the Nixon Administration resigned amid charges of White Hous- 
ort V° struct justice in the Watergate case.. Vice Presided 
Spiro T. Agnew resigned in October, following charges of £^ 
evasion Then, following impeachment hearinos that w e , oadc 
over television to the American public throughout is?" Presioen- 

JaT^-ff Z Sent^ t .I" ^»\^£^ 

in the FKT^nf 10 "^ 611 ^ similarly sought to restore public tru- 

Executive 1^1^^^^^^^.?".^,^: S^^ 1 
ana encouraged future operational cooperation. eXeCU ^ lve tr " ni »? 

r.edia.o„ w^^^i'L^ ^^^^^,^™.. and the 
securitv and coiiin-»r!„ t .,ii ; intelligence in amnestic 

constitutional rig C h ° t U E nterlntelll g«« investigations abridged 

intelligence" JollJiL^s^o^ ""?• ltS ° Wn criteria '« 
authority granted^by^attorney T«^SS ™ mS?" *"" M ?'* ,t 



1976, and for domestic security investigations on April's is?* 
(The latter were superseded March 21, 198 3.) 


Kelley's most significant management innovation, however 
implementing the concept of "Quality over Quantity 1 ' 
investigations. He directed each field office to set priorities 
>™f d ° n ^e types of cases most important in its territory and to 
concentrate resources on those priority matters. Strengthening thp 
'th^'V^ QUantit y" conc «Pt, ^e FBI as a whole esSblished 
tfitl a ^f 1 ° r 1 ltleS: f ° reign counterintelligence, organised 
crime, and white-collar crime. To handle the last priority tZ 
Bureau intensified its recruitment of accountants. It al° Q stepped 
up its use of undercover operations in major cases. • ste PP e d 

effort +„ S^ 9 Kelle y' s tenure £s Director, the FBI made a stronc 
effort to develop an Agent force with more women and one that vS 
more reflective of the ethnic composition of the UniteS Stares 



1980s that^p" s7^ ^ the mid- 

serious espionage damage uncovered bv4 P %-T^ PY Th& r '° St 

the John Walker spy rina an I h J 2 Y « I- aS P er P et ^ted bv 
employee William Pelton Y ^ Natlonal Security Agency 

Throughout the 19Rn=; +-k= ;n. n 

challenged the resources c^Un^^e^ ^a-.-"^ 

onallenae in iqct -t-v,„ »4-j- ^' *~'iuj.i-c.ue.ii.. ic ease th i = 

jurisdictior with ^ Dr UQ ' M?rc^S" « 9 "^ "' FEI ^current 
narcotics violations in Sf UnftedScItL ThT^^, (DEA) OVe -~ 
of Justice attention to dreg crimes resetted ?S f?P anded . Department 
Billions of dollars in controlled substances t £"* conf " ca «on of 
narcotics figures, and the dlS»n*7< . '■ a "ests of major 

One of the most pubUcized, SSE" ^."'piS"^ ^, rings. 

resu te £» ^vS ^ -^ ^ "»^SS A™ .'"it 
.Sicilian mafia" ^fssrs^nt-^^oUTo-s^^Sei £ 


was to be appointed FBI Director in 1993, was key to prosecute, 
successes m the case. Prosecutive 

+ o .v-4. °, n , another front, Webster strengthened the FBI's r^non 
. J~, in 15S8 unveLf ^uion A in 'E^JESiS 

uncovered Instances of' fraud that i=, ^; n 7 1980s, the FBI 

and other federal agencies as w e ?f,f Ration „ lt h local, stat 
It also unveiled the fht^'bS - „ acencle = of other countries 

capable of responding L r- 9 ? Re \ CUE Tean as a d °»estic force 
tragical oecu^i^UMe l^Ta^s.^"^ ™<* « 

combatting P t\ r r h r a or S is-f S s „ch "f"''-.?' thS Eu " a "'s emphasis on 
dra,atica?l y e during the 1980s In SL^ United «.t„ P«sS 

jurisdiction to cover te^roris- act, f ' • ™? eSS had e *P*nded FBI 
the U.S. boundaries. te - rorls - acts 2 9=mst U.S. citizens outside 

Director orthrc^Va^V^l^:^" ^"J^ "*.. ^ bacons 

Director John E. otto became a???™ ^ency. Executive Assistant 
position until November 2 1987 9 n,f r ^ SerVed in that 
Director Otto designated dVinl;^,- f" 5 his tenure, Actinc 
national priority. ynatea c ~ u 2 iweswigations as the FEI's fifth 

On November 2 iqr7 ^^— , ^ - 
Sessions was sworn in asV FBI Dire ™o r * ^rior /"t^ WilUaa £tGele 
FBI Director, Sessions served L as th/rh i , , h f £ PP°intment as 
District Court .for the Western ni % ? 1&f Judge of th * U.S. 
previously served as a DLtrf^T^ ° 1StriCt of Texas - Ke had 

district/ a Dlstrict Judge and as U.S. Attorney for that 

Place sincfDlrector^^ prevention efforts, in 

arug demand reduction pro™ FB 't T4 ■ eX ? anded to include a 
vor*m g ciosely with loc/l schooi aj^^^^ £*£ 


people to the dangers of drugs. Subsequent nationwide community 
outreach efforts under that program evolved and expanded through 
such initiatives as the Adopt-A-School/ Junior G-Man Program. 


The dismantling of the Berlin Wall in November is 8 9 
electrified the world and dramatically rang up the Iron Curtain on 
. the # final act in the Cold War: the formal dissolution of the 
Soviet Union, which occurred on December 25, 1991. 

While world leaders scrambled to reposition their foreign 
policies and redefine national security parameters, the. FBI 
responded as an agency in January 1992 by reassigning 3 00 Special 
Agents from foreign counterintelligence duties to violent crime 
investigations across the country. It was an unprecedented 
opportunity to intensify efforts in burgeoning domestic crim<= 
problems— and at the same time to rethink and retool FBI national 
security programs in counterintelligence and counter/terrorism. 

In response to a 40-percent increase in crimen of 
violence over the previous 10 years, Director Sessions' had 
cesignatea. the investigation of violent crime as the FBI's sixth 
national priority program in 1989. Ey November 1S91 the FEI had 
created "Operation Safe Streets" in Washington, D.C.— a conceot of 
federal, state, and local police task forces tarcetina fugitives 
f d Sangs. It was now ready to expand this operational~assi*=tance 
to police nationwide. 

At the same time, the FBI Laboratory helped chance the 
SSrtorhn 1 ? ^t^T 1 identif i"tion. Its breakthrough use of 
DNA technology enabled genetic crime-scene evidence to positively 
laentify— or rule out— suspects by comparina their particular DwI 
patterns. This unique identifier enabled the creation of a 

?m^i:m:nte N d\ I n nd i e 9 X 2 4 S . imilar *° *" «"*«*** ****'. *** had ^een 

crimes. J^^^l^^^^J^^^-^^^^ 

i"d"s Srcre^ lnCreaS5d «^o»atio„-i„ 'and deregSlat or^of 
l^cjs.ries had createa new environments for fraud. Resources wer P 
accordingly redirected to combat the new wave of Srce-sclle 
msioer bank fraud and financial crimes; to address c^imiSal 
sanctions m new federal environmental legislation- and ?o 
establish long-term investigations of complex health care frauds? 

. , ,. At the S£me time, the FBI reassessed its strate^ip^ ; n 
oefenamg the national security, now no longer defined a St 
containment of communism and the" prevention o/ nuclear war 


- By creating the National Security Threat List, which was 

approved by the Attorney General in 1991, it changed its approach 

from defending against hostile intelligence agencies to protectina 

U.S. information and technologies. It thus identified all 

countries— not just hostile intelligence services—that pose 

continuing and serious intelligence threat to the United States 

It also defined expanded threat issues, including the proliferation 

.of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons; the loss of critical 

technologies; and the improper collection of trade secrets ?nH 

proprietary information. nd 

_ As President Clinton was to note in 1994 with the 
dramatic expansion of the global economy "national securitv now 
means economic security.;* y 

*.„ u **"? eV£ : nts occurred in late 1992 and early 1993 that were 

199p £V lh £ m ^? r lmpaCt ;° n FBI P ol ici^ and operations. m August 
1992 the FBI responded to the shootina death of Deputv U s 

nS 1 ^ h '^ lia ™ De ? an < vho vas billed at Ruby Ridge, Idaho/while 
participating in a surveillance of federal fugitive Randall We-ve- 
In the course of the standoff, Weaver's wife was accidental lv shot 
ana killed by an FBI sniper. wciaenta^iy shot 

violations 0n co™i4 e d 9 'by 19 Di; e ior 10 S Uin9 - alle 9 ati °- "<* ^hics 
removed him from office *n* 1 ■ „ S6 f sl ° ns ' President Clinton 

Cierte as Acting FBI Di?eotor P Thtp e res ?H P ^ y ° ir <r^°* "^ I ' 
Sessions' most sianifi can* -",,,■ President noted that Director 
include mor I™ "^"f.l _^ ievMent "" broadening the FBI to 

mcluae more women and minoritie 


September l^is^/ ***** "" SVOrn in as Sector of the FBI on 

unusual insight ""to ^eV^ t^T ^ 16 credentials and 
from 1975 to 1981 in the New York Si£ rSffiTn,^ " FBI Agent 
Headquarters before leaving to join toe u I Atf f ^ £t FBI 

y joj-n -cne U.S. Attorney's Office for 


.-he southern District of New York. Here Freeh rose quickly and 

ConnVS 1 - « many * a 3°^ FBI CSSeS ' deluding the notorious "Pizzf 
Connection" case and the "VANPAC" mail bomb case. He was atmJ^ % 

Lii-V 1 ??! 00 !? Judge for the Southern District "f a S5S5oS 

FBI n5i" - i Y °' 1993 ' Preside nt Clinton nominated him to £ 
■ "J 3 f ireCtor - He WaS confirmed by the U.S. Senate on August 6, 

that would Fr ; e spond an both ^T ^ * Cle ? rly artic ^ted agenda 
f-ii« a +. * respond both to deepening crime problems and to = 

Many management positions were abolishpd Siff^ he FdI ' 

vo, W be acc^Te a^d ^^0* ^^ liM " *'"» «*" 

In continuation of the udt/^ 
advancement of minorities' and J™ 1.- commitme nt to the 
organization, in October 1903 f° h Vlthin the ranks of the 
the first man of Hispanic' descent and ap h P ° lnted the first woman, 
American descent to L nam^Assist^ ^^ "*" ° f AfrlC£n " 

to serve, as Director of the DeparlmJn? % S ^ lta — appointment 
Investigative Agency Policies ^™\m Justl «' s new °^e ar- 
able to work effectively with law en?o^ P ° Sltlon ' he has been 
Department of Justice to detelon?in Mnt agencies within the 
enforcement issues, irS ^ ! r CO ° per£tlon on criminal law 
xntelligence, ^t^ti^S^T^^^dS^^^! 

on cruc 

importance of inter^ to dramatize the 

He traveled to Sicily to ho nor "his ^T?"? Crine issues - 
Giovanni Falcone, who had been kin^ • t f J lend and colleague 
and three bodyguards the yea? bef oil SA^^ 1 ^ Vith his v ^ 
Chapel of the Palace of the Noraans in tZT ° f the Pal *tine 
presence, Preeh challenged the S< pSpS'-t!?^ ^"afij 


your minds and hearts and the rule of lav >• Thi c w „ 

repeated and strengthened the f ola v'ear k th P f 9G /' aS to be 

capitals of Russia and Eastern Europe democratic 

In the summer of 1994 Frpph i fl /i -, j„t j. • 
c-er»any, declared ""This'ifttf^v 1° ^"J"' ■ °- S - ta ^ssadc t to 

Russian communism. • Att=che °" lce " Moscow, the old seat of 

against possible theft of nn/i strengthen security measure- 
from Russia and other' fo^e^r^S^r^^ ™ cle « .Aerials 
have sharpened joint effort^ =^?n ° Soviet Union. Thev 
trafficking, and terrorist Th gainst organized crime, dmc 
FBI's efforts to i^stTtute standardized '^ '^^^ su PP^ed the 
police in investigative precedes ethY^™ ? f f nte ™tior, a i 
professionalise: in April iq P 95 thp t^ I"' le£der shi P , and 
Academy opened its doors in Eudaoes* 1 ^ &rnatl °^ 1 L ^ Enforcement 
other law enforcement trained the^ri" 9 " 7 ^ St£ffed by FBI £nd 
courses a year, based on the FBI's National °a " fiVe ei ^t-week 

roi s national Acaaemy concept. 

lawlessnesri/tn^^ist^centurv *?« 5°^ d ° mestic £ nd foreicn 
law- enforcement to ensure ^J n^^^ the effort ^ 
telecommunications advances to ablllt ^ m the face of 
electronic surveillance in iraW ,• "^ ° Ut court-authorized 
safety and national security' " Sis ^f* 1 ™ affecting public 
Congress passed the communicator a • C L lllty V£s secured when 
Act in October 19S4. 10ns Assistance for Law Enforcement 


^ e £ i so mounted cccrec-iuo ^ 
During the years icof t h^ n „^ P f? ff ams ln specific criminal 
in successful investigations afd ?>s "« ^"S Gff ° rtS paid °« 
bombing m New York City; the ^roh^nf ■ ? the World Trade Cente- 
pnee-fixing conspiracies ; the a tLfS^ ^^ international 
and Merck pharmaceutical trade se"e?S fnd ^ ° f Sch ^ina~^oua h 

^e.^^Sov. JUM ^cia-A^/ ^^— ^"crimf^b-s 

Accountability ^ ' and ^ e H"^ -surance ^o^ility „ d 


' Cl ° S i n h g da ^ S ° f ^ e 104th Session of Congressmen sigued into 
:! W " ™ese nGW statutes enabled the FBI to siqnific-n^ 
strengthen its criminal programs in health care fraud and the the ^ 
of traae secrets and intellectual property. heft 

At the same time, Director Freeh initiated manv ^k- 
to Prepare for evolving criminal challenges. For example ^he b^ 65 

*** *** *** *** 


As it approaches its 90th snn''vpr«;srv i-k„ tt-t 
to anticipate and respond to en.erginTc^JS'ttrLS' ^^ 

carried oufby "some of tbTros^ ?* *=«"« People, is beinc 
found anyvher/in ?£e Jorld todav " n' ° *"* . talented employees 
criminal activity throSfhV^ combatting 

ana law enforcement services Thpv r ^ mvesagaaons, programs, 
first small crouo of Social *£ Y <- C ° ntinue the mission cf that 
tradition of sVvice that h ' 1 * "V*, ln 19 ° S who e ^ablished a 
Bravery, and Integrity * beC ° He the beau's motto: Fidelity, 


Office of Public and Congressional Affairs 

C35 £ S Bu ^ Su . of Investigation ^ 

S3o Pennsylvania Avenue, N W 
Washington, D.C. 20535 




">rr *y*v< 3^<^,i 


•.- 1 >.*j-.''K,».--'-''..' • . 

*.-€-!, ' »*~ 5>?^. # , 




FILE NO. - .GA-Mni 


- * * *■* f ^J^ **f** i,a v *- ",* *-**-f , *i*^-i -■ 

,f^r.- • f -..- ->• -•■■ .-.■-.■■■ 

► ..•iV---.'-. *'-»-7' ; »-t > . 





£-Mr. Toleon 

■Mr. E. A. Tamm 

Mr. CI egg 

Kr. Glavin 

-Mr. Ladd 

Mr. Nichols, 

Mr. Rosen 

J*r. Tracy 

.Miss Gandy 
-Mr. McGuire 
-Mr. Mohr 
-Mr. Nease 
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-Mr. Pennington 
-Mr. Renneberger 

-Chief Clerk's 

-Records Section 
-Mail Boom 

-Mechanical Sec. 
-Personnel Files 

Washington Field 

. Quant i co 

. Room 

'?-■■■''■ ■ •©. 




-Mr. McCabe 
-Mr. Since 
-Mr. Rogers 
-Mr. Feeney 
-Mr . Meyers 
-Mr. Nanna 
-Mr. Page 

-Mr. Carlson 
-Mr. Egan 
-Mr. Gurnea 
-Mr. Long 
-Mr. Mclntire 
-Mr. Motley 
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-Mr. Newby 
-Mr. Sloan 

-Send File 

Place on Record 

Place on Record 

and Return 
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Note and return 

Please handle 

File our files 


Room 5256, Ext. 484 







Bepartaent Cir. 

March 16, 1909. 



ohukr establishing bubeau or nrcsTiaAKoi of the 


Ibr the purpose of facilitating the investigation aoxfc 
«ader this Bepartaent, the office of the Chief Szaalner shall 
hereafter be called the Bureau of Investigation, and the Chief 
Eaminer is hereby authorised and designated to act as the 
Chief of the aald Bureau, and as ouch ahall hare supervision 
orer the work of all persons whose eoapensation or expenses 
are paid from the appropriation ■Miscellaneous Expenses, 
Baited States Courts", or the appropriation »Betection and 
Prosecution of Criaes," and who are amploTed for the purpose 
of collecting evidence or of asking investigations or onala- 
ations of any kind for this Bepartaent or the officers thereof. 



-■•■ . C'. ; 


-' O s t 

« ■• 


.*••■ •• ■.' 


: »-<K' 


* \ 

Attorney Qeneral. £ £_ ^Jj rj £ 

MAR 29 J977 



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v^,-.- ■ . •,.•••■ • ' ; .- *%>■. 

•>jr^. ^* x *'° Lawrence. rnmuT , i -nr 

^ *M[ J *»0»«E WIHIAM3. «/■««,„ ,%, 

VICTOR WMITtOCK. »«««. „, .^ 

July 12, 1926 

l* ^ 

JJr. J. Edgar Hoover, Director. 
Bureau of Investigation, 
Department of Justice, 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Hoover t 

How many .ubscriptions to The United 
States Daily will y0 u need for the f year Just 
starting, for the Bureau of Investigation? 

We make this inquiry now because at 
this time bureaus, divisions, and independent estab- 
lishments are sending in their order.. 

If, like some of the other government 
Wches, it is impossible for you to pay your subscrip- 
tion, in advance, we can tell you that we have made 
arrangement, to bill y0 u in accordance with your par- 
ticular requirements, after the paper ha. started. 

Your, very truly, 

Jay Jerome Tilliam. 

f ■' ■■ 

IB ■'■•'•' 

,„ - JUL 131926 






''' i . " 




yV>** J 5f- 


Future of Tariff 
Is Said to Rest on 
Haugen Farm Bill 


Mit red bf G ermany 

Tax Receipts 
Shpw Increase 
Of Five Million 

• ilO*.'' -v a 


BUI *o-U ProM, IWUJ, -» IT !' 

Tor -Saidy ,? K„«j "01* Ct HOffle 

«— . c^nu *„*».( Scheme Remits 
Tg^Zl^T | InFiwr Vr 

Dining Can m Have 
Meat Cnding Service 

At First Session 

»' ifc.fcr Mdarin ari 
— __ r**u>, Im torn, m* 

~.~~. fcuiuti i 1 1 ,, 

*""*"« . taT«* >-,^-' 

»♦ — .- . 

FROMi The United States Daily. 

.-.DhlD ft DTDEZXD _,, 

TO i AH Bureau and Division Chief s^ 

L'. 1 Lrtw vf tit •*, 

SOBJKOTt News Announoemen 


li8 * Aug 19 :*&; . -..'; 

':r,.;,T,vthi '.if Jli.iv.. 

JjiD 2"- V 


wd M JTtreets, * # f., 
'August IS, 1M6. 

let,/ AUu 2 Ji/» 


fe would appreciate jour cooperation in sending us, wither by 
mil or messenger, 'copies of all letters received by you and your'ans^rT 
thereto which may be of news interest either to the special groups of 
people affected or the-general public. Re publish only authorised in- 
formation and we have no desire to receive this for ourselves alone «« 
a special or exclusive service. Should you desire us to furnish a 
proof or copy to be posted in the National Press Club or to be given to 
the news associations, we will be glad to furnish the extra copy to who- 
ever may be designated. Our purpose is merely to make sure that we are 
getting a complete record of governmental activities. 

We have etationed a reporter in every department and in every ii 
independent establishment who is assigned to call at -every 'bureau '& di- ^ 
vision at least once every day. Should you have any letter, or copies " 
of correspondence that require approval by a higher officer, our repre- 
sentative will be glad to submit the material he has gathered to .uoh 
higher official. Our reporter, ^.instructed not to .end u. anything ^ : 
— Publication unless it has been f^^thorised by the governmen^ -^ 




• <i 







- . 

bur... or di»l.i.n la , u .. tlon . Tou ^ tb#Mford( pUc , ^ UcH in our r. P r...nUti„. and ,i„ t.„ ora! nnn.nn.....ti or 
—orand.. InumKh a , it „ „ h7 , 1( , aUr lBII1 ,., lH , ^ ^ ^ ^ 
on. o.U .». rJr <„,, ., „ uU apj , rei!liti> Jt jf ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 
pb.r. to „t. M „ tra copJ „, ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ 
». .bout It at on... ,. .an u.. .at.rial up to 5 r. «.. fcut .bouXd. .0 « 
*.r a. po,.lol.. „.„, Jour 1 nnonn,.».nt. 1» W b.f.r. four o'.lo.» rt,... '< 
•v.r p...itl.. P1 . a „ *,!.„„„„ w 2M0 lf jou ^ , „ TCrUj . to oom 
to your office. 

Pl.a.. far in «ind that .,. rj .. Bb .r of Congr... r..d. «,. * 

unlt.d Stat.. „.„, and tbat tb. aotiviu.. of «o,.™.ntal ar. „ .' mt.r..t to t„ M . m , act , bJ r . v , allnf to 0MgrMj 0MBtMtly , | 

tb. .noraou. amount „ a. r > 4o n. b 7 tb. bur..u.. tb.r. 1. .. doubt that 
tb.r. am „. an lnor.n=. in .„„.!.„.. of tb. ..„!„. rnitnl bj ^J 
istrative offioers. 

Trusting that we may have your cooperation, w. remain, 

Respeotfully yours 

the united states daily 

Chief of News Staff. 









Sl)t (inite;> ^tat£<s ^atl^ 

E.«tal.]j.*hr<) March 4. 19:6. 

Tu! I^hcil <-v< ry "lay in thn year except Fumlays anJ fl'iYirnrv.t-nt hoIIJays liy 
The I'niteil Stales D-,j]y PuMi>h!ng Corp-ration. at Twnity-stcor.d and M 
i-'tiveis N. \V., Washington, D. C. Ttl< phone: Wi*t 2S«0. 

Daviu I.awi.kni.t - ; . 

i'rtsiffi ill 

J»t Jlt.'me U'i'.lmms John E. i!«. V:cTfn W»i:tvx-x 

/»u.*..'tsjirr fjoicral .Viin'ii'cr TAriCtur o] Ad.t rtutng 

<-. O. Mv.«ina T. M. R'iMN Eh nest A. $vi;. :.z 

ffc«.' r,f Xnct .»'.'n.7 J/aiJ Circulation ltirrcl-jT Field Circulation Inrcctvr 

Imrtv Tkat'on James L. Brat F. R. LUrKHA^B 

Xrrrx /{•■•■lrrh liirn-lur Treasurer Fctntary 

Ruoti-rn 0:n<-e 52 VamVrl-ill Avi-r.uo. Niw Yvsk, N. Y. 

Wi-st< rn <:r:ce 1S17 L'Ti'V.n Guarantee Buil.lir.v. ChlciiM. 131. 

r.-.t-isie C>-:..«: < ""to 304 BuJ.Vtin LhM^z. £:.n Vrr,r.ri<-:o. Calif. 

Eun.]--!ii '•::.(.' 19 Hue il'Anlin. I'.iri*. rnir.ce 

Far K.u-:vrn « :r.ce 3 A"i-Cho. AIi«ik:i, T«kyo. Japan 

DcUvon-d ar.y i lace in the' ■! S'.al. s, p'^-atre ir'pai.!, f.-.r $13.(0 a year. 
Tv i '..■;.!■! i, 517. ;•'. T.j F'T<:-n C"U;:tr;.«. f -<>■•"). 

THE 3'U- jarj'sc r,f The L'nitrd .S'tof. i Imtly is to present a cmpUtr antt 
Cvtns-rrkrnxi-.-c rrr:r4 uf thr ti-js'.-j nrtiftii s '>) tkc O'ot < rniv nt ?•/ ffcc fnrtrd 
.Staffs in o.'J ifa f/Ci/icN j — l.cj.s'.ntu r. E.-> cut '.re nnd JuJiriit — uithovt r<Iir.-r;at 
r.jiCm'on r.r ri>r—r-f »../ an;/ Vir.'f. /?<.';« rin</ »fclt jurh a «.'<:i.'i/<i;>rr tr»u.'d 
."ill a i/;.<r:r<r ; Mrr in the U'c uf Inc .4. - «fricun w<>iAc, the folloutng men and 
vmrn /'.un'/rd this pub'.'.cntiijn: 

Owes D. Ycvno M':s. Memi.i M«-<>nM:':K Otto H. Kahn 


John W. Wleks Alkei.t JJ. Las-xcr Walter C Tcaole 

Miss Belle Si!Eji<vin Willalii SAi-:.stri:y Simon Of-v-ENiiriM 

E. A. E't'Ki'S I'iiillip H. Gai-mes Mi.5. Ciiaisle* II. Sams 

EEKXArsi M. Bari-ch <;g,i:i:b F. IVrtisi Bleoke.vki:«:e Ia.vo 

CLAKENr-E 11. Ma.'KaT JaMES \V. OKKAktl liLMW Sr'-Ht.KSIN.Xlt 

Van S. Mum.E-S.MiTH 

B. F. Y'AKiM 

E. T. Mskemtii 

II. P. Witjios 

Mart R< ie:.T3 liiNCKAKr 

C. Haj.vm Si.emp 

Fkaxk L. I'olk 

Jt'Ul'S 15'SKN\VA!.a Ji'iiNsuN 

J( SEP!! S. Fl.EUSOllI'V'ES 

Ml#s Asm: .M<i.wa.v 

K. F. C<lti;a 

David La.wue.nve 


Ika C. ^'"Iijeit 

MR8. J. Hi KtF.S Ha!!-1MAS 

Mr..i. Ei.mkii S.-hlesix 


Lm:. St.vsi.kv M. t 

F. Tlil'PEE L'AVl.-f.N 


O'U .Nta. E. M. H'ji-.-E '., 

Mm. LeHoy t-rnixcs 

Jat Jui'jme Williams 

Wit.Ttn J. Faux ' 

John \V. Davis 

William B. Wilson 

John Bahkbtt 

\V. M. RlTTER 

Alas C. Ui.neiiakt 

Knr.CiT S-. I'.KtOKi.vos 


SAMtEL Is^t'LL.'. 

James L. FhAT 

Viot.b \Vn:Tui-.-ie 

J"1IN E. Kl-'B 

T. M. 15' I'LfS 


Allen- • 


;ll Gi:ant Stkais 




'4 .. 




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llnltAa BtaUt BUI/, »Mdh nfonti — —- •-^- VA^;^r?i^^i^- i x 

U- i .1 

"v" > 

atiantlav la vltv »f the fMt tfeat ao laferaatloai 

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NOV 092« 



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Cllje Suited §&!af es Baitj 


. v 


DAVID LAWRENCE. nrtsimirr 



VICTOR whitlock, DimcTtai or Mmnuwo 

Mot ember 6, 1926 

lUi . J . Edgar Hoover , ' <- 

Department of Justice , 
Washington, IL. C. 

Dear Kr. Hoover t 

The United States Daily is making a topical Surrey 
of all the units of the national government, grouping related 
activities. The work of each unit will he covered in a special 
article to he submitted for revision and approval to the bureau 
before publication. In order to assist us in grouping the 
bureaus, we are asking all chiefs of bureaus or divisions to 
check herein the activities in which their units are engaged* 
Would you kindly look over the attached list, check off the 
topics which touch your unit and return to us in the enclosed 
envelope ? This will be of great assistance to us in covering 
the work of the various units in their proper order. 

Owing to the magnitude of this task, considerable time 
may elapse before some of the bureaus are reached in the survey 
but all will be covered thoroughly and ample time will be given 
before publication for personal consultation with each bureau 
chief, careful preparation of his article and revision by him. 

We are sure we can count upon you for full cooperation 
in this great educational work. 

BySOOi^^wfiv i n '""Sincerely yours. 



i. a 



- '> •■•.«■ •.. :,----/ ;--.:-:/-'.:i^y 

:>■ * , -:..'.-* '- ."\ -' *..'••/?>- "eft 


oopy of Oosntmloatlon, together with to* 
olosure, reoelTed from llr. 0. 0. Marahalt* 
Chief of lawi Bteff, fbe baited Btateo 
Belly, ander date of Jon* fet, * 

tt will bo noted that this ooiawftlto-V*^"-*^-' ■'"• 

tica rojaetti either too preparatloa of _ 

articje with reference Jo fe* fount lone of - : ~ -,v ,,-.-,>-- ^ 

thl» Pureaa, or 09 eabsiaeloa to en interriew. \ -* ^»-ys*V ' 

till yon ploaaa advise aw *« to fear '? ; VY : ^\ \;V'r 

▼lewa «nd wishes in the £reBises f that la 04 *§ 

to whether t>r not en artlele should ho' proporal.^^C^I'^ 1 
or whether it would ho prefereblo to permit &f >.^?f *&:#?? ^sfflfc 
the aewspaper representative to ooadoot *» later- *^f' 

*■■•''. '.'•■.. V - ' *ery tro3^"*joa»i # ' ;:: ^^^ i 0^" l v'"sVtoV^' . 



tool, 801M 

-"» v / V_ 

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t."=.-;-V'-S - " ■■'■-"* • "• '• •-.;'...*. ..': '*•■■'• „ ; -.. . ,: ..■•••• ;-'•-•■•. ."••'."- .-- --'• 

^3.<V' 4 

- -V-.*' 

•* .<* 


QniW §lat»Bailft 


or in oovxtn>x«MT 




AAVID lAWRijrcr. pftanscirr 


JOHN r..KICr..«liUul.MiiiUl 

VICTOR WlinxoCK.BmBeTtm < 


• f 






June 22, 1927. 

l£r. J. Edgar Hoover, Director, 
Bureau of Investigation, 
Department of Justice, 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear l«r. Hoovers 

The United States Daily is making a topical survey of 
the Government. In the series of articles now running are 
being shown the practical contacts between divisions and 
bureaus of the Government of the United States, irrespective 
of their place in the adninistration organization. F * CX ' 

<s,„„.J e W ° U l d be pleased to **** an article by you on the 
functions of your office. If you do not feel that you have 
tiii« to prepare such an article, we would be glad to send a 
mender of our staff to interview you for material for such 
£fo« Si« J° sub £ tted to y° u '" Wroval or revision 

1 2o5 aS 1 ?S a ^ articl68 "• '«^ing between . 
i,<suu and 1,500 words in length. 

I hope that you will find time to prepare this artiola 
yourself, but if you cannot, will you be kino; enough Jf ' 
inform me when you can see one of our reporters. ■ :^ : " 

issue 1 wh^^V C ° Py ° f the artiCle P rinted "*» todayV 
issue, which will give you a general idea as to the character 
of these articles in the event you have not already setnJt! 

Sincerely yours. 


End. 1. 

Chief of News Stafjf, 

JUN 27 1927^ 

Df.i-A.;if.K . K*, 

•" ll .."K" W *l J l J. l t l JWHH 


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if -r.o ■■>*i-»~. 


Mr, 0. 0. Ifcrsholl, 
Chief tt love Staff, 
United BUUl Belly, 
Veehlnfton, 5. 0. 

Deer tin ■. 

-.■ v 

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X teg %o eekBovlodge receipt of yonr 
eeaenaleetloa of Jttno tt, 19tT, Mqmitittf tt artlole 
on the functions of the tureen of iBTMtlfotUm of 
tho Department of Jut loo. ./^'*/%**f";*~\_ .. 

.In eeoordenoe therewith, X e» trennlttln*, 
ettoehed horoto, o review of tho fanatlone end ooopo 

of the tarees vhleh I tnut so/ soot jronr vlihtt. 

! - • . - , ■. -\ ,-.- .-■ r; , ,;. 

Tory traly joare, 

Sir oo tor* 

2do1. t«914. 

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Topic 18-Lan- Enforcement 


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Juiuet tine, 1908 i, if,v ™*J>«P»rtmHit of 
TioUtioc. cr aJW JS^'"* «"«=«>• feto , "j 

tiv » «o*iielo«r^'„ MhtT r»WBnnBUI famtiM. 
India*. «d CorSaS«?^r* w ** ,•••«. «w».v, •. 

•lapmeati. TiolationT or Jl ,J^ 5?L fro » falmUto 
«ni«t Uw,. White Sit" iSSL^S?*'??" «"«»■»«- 
Vehicle Theft aZ* m /**"« Att, K«ti n«l Ifoh. 

£ -... Js 4t,S:^t ,, 2 >d o, nJ i" te , r,ut ^^' 

Government pn>pertr*™!»i!f i "' P«»»««»Joa tf • 
r«mito* nAftt , ;^ t 2 OL ™i , «^ Act. Portal Pnu^ 

tsg?- .»..:::: 

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*«die«l matter. 

8el«tive •.rrico':;;::; *• 

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*«r Ri,k IowroncT ™ 

*b«te Sl.r. Traffic Aet— '-'." »••-. 

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\ • -' • --*> 

V - 


There were two life' sentences, both for crimes on 

Government and Indian reservations. 

• • • 

CPECIAL agents of the Bureau of Investigation 'art 
'" selected with the utmost care and after the most 
rigid tests have been applied. Appointments art eon- 
fined to those possessing LL. B. or LL. K. degrees 
from recognized law schools or colleges. 

It has been fonnd that a comprehensive knowledge 
fcf law is practically an indispensable requirement in 
the intellectual equipment of a modern investigator. 
It is recognised, also, that the moral equipment of • 
high-class investigator is of positive importance. No 
special agent of the Bureau of Investigation is ap- 
pointed who has not first been thoroughly investigated 
and whose entire career has not been subjected to the 
closest scrutiny. All agents appointed must have spot- 
less records and must not have been guilty of any 
offense, either civil or criminal, at any time. The age 
limit has ' -— stt between the years rf 25 and 40. 

• • • 1 

Agents of the Bureau perform every investigative 
activity in cases involving violations of Federal stat- 
utes up to the point at which a case is presented in 
court for actual trial. All agents perforce are well 
grounded in the laws of evidence and not only possess 
the theoretical training which a legal course affords, 
but develop, through experience in performing investi- 
gative work in intricate cases, and sitting at the coun- 
.*>1 table with United States attorneys in court during 
the trial of these cases, a practical knowledge of legal 
procedure which enables them to exercise the requisite 
investigative akill and judgment in the performance 

«f their duties. 

• • • 

rpHE work of the Bureau is growing rapidly, although 
there has been no increase (in fact, there has been 
* substantial decrease in the past five or six years) in 
the .investigative personnel. Among the classes of 
cases showing a substantial increase from year to year 
may be noted those involving violations of the National 
Bankruptcy Act and the National Motor Vehicle Theft 
Act. Violations of the latter are particularly numerous 
and are increasing rapidly. 

In addition to the investigative wort under the 
Jurisdiction of the Bureau, it should be noted that the 
Director of the Bureau is vested with the immediate 
supervision and direction of tK»jsVatienal Division of 

*- * _ - *: * 

f th-^a 

Identification. This institution was created by an Act 
rf Congress and its official statutory existence was initi- 
ated on July 1, 1924. 

It commenced to function under the provisions of an 
appropriation act covering the general expenses of the 
Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1925. This act 
carried a special provision authorising and providing 
funds for the acquisition, maintenance and exchange of 
criminal identification records with the officials of the 
Government and 'States. The Identification Division ia 
located in the Hurley-Wright Busjding, 1800 Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue, Washington, D. C. It ia manned by an 
expert personnel of fingerprint classifiers and searchers, 
together with the necessary clerical staff. 

There are, at the present time, in the possession of 
the National Division of Identification 1,219,511 figuer- 
print records of criminals both of national and inter- 
national importance and of current actual interest and 
value. This Division is supported by, and operates in 
close daily contact with, law enforcement officials 
throughout the country, store particularly with the 
members of the International Association of Chiefs of 
Felice. Tbe Division receives an average of 600 finger- 
print cards daily from law enforcement officials 
throughout this country and abroad. 
• • • 

r FHESE records are, immediately upon receipt, classi- 
fled and searched and in tbe event any previous 
criminal .record is found in the archives of the Division, 
a complete notice covering the details thereof ia im- 
mediately transmitted to the law enforcement officials, 
penal institutions, etc, transmitting said prints to the 

During the fiscal year ending June SO, 1927, there 
were 166,920 fingerprint inquiries received by the Bu- 
reau. Of the prints received, a total of 62,223 identi- 
fications were accomplished, showing past criminal 
records of minor or major importance. The value of 
this service and its importance in connection with the 
work of law enforcement officials everywhere in con- 
junction with the investigative work of the Bureau is 
increasing from year to year. <•"•.- _••..—" 

I* tkt nex< uriiel* of (A is ecrirf, to b* 
printed Auffutt i, Howard Sutherland, AHtn 
Property Cuttodian, will ditenit tkt /mictions 
•f kit ojftee. 

IISl. hr Tb« Calud |U1« rMllr Publliati* Corpora 




&i& ■ 



-*r •"■-'-•' i ■[[ , rii ' matmrn i Mi 



— : 9-" 


ZhtftniUb plates Dntlu 


l»V » Hl| «M11I 

KMA1I1 I.MII'lt MIIH'II 1. 1<>21 

n.vviK i..\ma',M r «*>i 

JA> JI-K*»>IK Wn 1 IA.»I 
JIUIX ». l.-li I. ... .11,11 

June, 22, 1927. /<$£^ 

Kr. J. Edgar Hoover, Director, 
Bureau of Investigation, 
Department of Justice, 
Washington, D. c. 

Dear I4r. Hoover: 

The United States Daily is Baking a topical uurveV of 
.the Government. In the series of articles now running are 
being shown the practical contacts between divisions and 
Bureaus of the Go verm-ran f. nf fh. tt^-i—j cx-x__ *_ 

of tneir place in the adninistration organization. 

We would be pleased to have an article by you on the 

subnitted to you for approval or revision 
1,200 and 1,500 words in length. ■• . ■ 

I hope that you will find time to prepare this article 
yourself, but if youoannot. will you be kind enough to 
inform ne when you can see one of our reporters. 

■ , . ■ . .. . • _ . » . ■ 

V.I ■? »J fc MjJn6 a copy of the article printed in today's 

o^he,! «t^ f iV l y0X1 a general idea as t0 the character 
of these articles in the event you have not already seen it. 

Sincerely yours, / ■>. 

. r \ '."",• .:'-.' -'—---" Chief of News Staff . 

8-17. .;-. y- ''■■:"'*--' ; V.y- ■ - :'■ •'"'-"■:'" '• ■ ■- "'; : — 

End. 1. .^--<>.-- ■ '>;.:;v:" -. • . '- '''■'•"/■■ 

■'*'-' : .-<x*t-j -. 

i\KI).\E>I)AY, JUNE 22, 1927. 

* f flic Coyernment 

_, U?.ri Sl.tM m^AKINC 

c f ilv amount .»»* ell the bureaus of tbe National 

ii. if liejr are Government, grouping related activi- 
. iUj need and * tlei, b • work which will enable oor 

, ; ',j, ibat Ike citizen* to understand and ate the fine 

-t for objeclt facilities the Congress provides for 

- »od tfcal jt b them. Such • survey will be useful to 

toed buiineu schools, colleges, business and profei-' 

:.!. eions here and abroad. 

•:-:'.<* Statu. President of tbe United Statu, 

1913-1921 , . ' |»23 

I jiforces. Regulation: 

f— .Shipping 

l*u rcau of Navigation. 

it io the crew, accounting for such moneys to the 
"fc-i'ping companies tinder bond. They arbitrate dis- 

:r.r owners or master* of vessels about to sail its 
'■Maining crew*. 

' • • • "■ 

They take charge of the effects of deceased sea- 
ir.en together with any wages due them, accounting 
in these matters to the Federal courta having- Juris- 
diction. They maintain record* of the. shipment and 
discharge of seamen; assist in the location of missing 
seamen for relatives and consuls; examine food on 
vessels; assist sick seamen to enter the Marine Hos- 
r-'-nU conducted by the Public Health Service: Inves- 
tigate alleged attempts to "shanghai" seamen; and 
dut/ibnte books and .shjps. ^^^ • 

In the arbitration of disputes between masters and 
leimen on questions involving wages, fines, discipline, 

sioners as to matters of fact are final. -.■■., >,-.-. 

\, fu on u *""»"* "*I>oniible for the enforcement 

• of the navigation laws of the country, in the dir- 
charge of this responsibility the Bureau relies to a 

• i-^VlJ^Jt 1 extent upon « m P 1o y" of the Department' 
.°f«e Treasury, chiefly customs officers. -~- • : -. 'A 

■Thescnofficeri twrtnrm nrirtl..1l» -in' 't »i_. '^ . « ■ 

f and documenting 

! : - ■•?".-?'. on - fin "' 'P««»'ties>nd forfeitures; In tht ' 

AimomiiD PiAit.MtMS Only Anr rw..'- nti.d, B> isa 

riBLI.'lU.n WlTHdfT COllXl.M RV Tl!E VslZl.K STATUS I'«;^Y. 

Clerks in Third-Class Post Offices 
Denied Benefits of Retirement Act 

— • . j 

Department of Interior Rules TJicv Are Not 
Federal Employes and So Are Not \ 

Entitled to Annuities. 

___ - i 

r C I*ir kS « in Pf> "- 0f!icc5 of lhe third or I Poft 0friCC DfPartnienL Their compen- 
| fourth elms are not employes of the sation and tenure are wholly subject to 

' tr>° V !i rr ' m0 " " are n0t ' ,htrcfoic ' tn " lhc '■""l™' ni l nc Postmaster 


; partment pointed out. This policy has 
become an established rule, due to re- 
currences of the question, and is con- 
curred in by the Civil Service Commis- 
sion and the Post Office Department, it 
is stated. 

The full text of the decision, signed by 
the Assistant Secretary of tbe Interior, 
John II. Edwards, follows: 

Helen S. Swan; Betirement Division, 
Bureau of Pensions; Claim No. R. 7930; 
rejection of claim for increase of an- 
nuity; affirmed. 
Appeal from the Bureau of Pensions. 
Helen S. Swan was granted annuity 
under the Civil. Service Retirement Act 
of May 22. 1920 «1 StaL 6U). at the 
rate of $351.60 per annum, effective Au- 

■n opinion by the Commissioner of Pen- Department U not permitted to reduce- 

""c 8 *!. i , """ ._. lh? nXe of annuity trranted under the 

&uch clerks are hired by the port- prior law. In the case of Florence E 

ahi^mlii'.yil l ayifflMtii i ' 

•greed upon by contract between I "Clerks in post offices of the third and 

post office. _■; 

Has Been Changed '" 

, At the .time of that adjudication, it 

character, but that practice was later 
abandoned for the reason that such em- 
ployment is regarded as contract service 
engaged for by the postmaster and paid 
for by him partly out of allowances al- 
lotted by the Post Office Department 

SArmy Orders > 

Llent Col "frlltfam H. Clcndtnls.Ve'lieYed 

masters of those offices, not employes of 
the United States, and are not, therefore, 
entitled to credit for such service under 
the retirement law. 

"Where in the adjustment under sec- 
tion 8 of the amendatory retirement act 
of July 8, 1926. of an annuity granted to 

l.fiT'M.M f ■J1T7T.I 

pre-existing law, the computation would 
result in a sm «llcr annuity than that al- 
lowed under tbe old act, the rate of the 
annuity as previously computed will be 

Part of Service '* 
■Kot to Be Credited ■■■ 

In the present case it appears that the 
5?J?r U L Unt has bcen P* id * l ^ nit of 

The total period ofsen'i'ce" credited "as 1 T^ h ' Ch *° nId be ,* * ,ro P* r 'ncreaae undVr 
basis for the said annuitv was IS vem* I , . 1 cw * ct .. if »" oI *"•■ senice were sub- 


|,". r .j' T h e "<u»toms"offic-crs In the pcrformanc/^V these*-? 
{^'duties receive their instructions directly- m and *" 

HIT- the^domcstlc commerce of the United .. , tjij.t.-c»fc -Skjlbi Jf. U.v itt . HmVI'^' compensation. •:"~^ ."-^yv 
*?7 ■" ' ■-.'■ -■"" ?;-:- ••--— -V-- 1 "'"»«..W»-^,Okiahofna Agricultural and-r.^n the administration'' of tin " : *ttl 

""I The customs officers In lb. „„rA r .—>>. <T^~. M»ch.n.c.. College, racked. . J^ . 'r Went l.w.cred t Jor a^l« b„ b,tn , 

.V » '■VrfSnsrteriaaster Corps. • .' 
Maj. Ceorga LutxrofT. relieved u 
| iimnifnt-ln office of Quartrrmatt* 

, a>ra>t n»ila»ail 4 *. «"*•..__ T» *-v»^ . — 

that the aforesaid service in a third-class- 
post office was not subject to credit 1 
readjudication of the claim under the tm 
set, in harmony with current interpreta- 
tion of the law. and that the old annuity 
should stand. He also held that the over- 

covered. The claimant has appealed from 
that action and urges that all of the 
service should be credited and ths'ln- 
Cr $il** d r>" u of the »*" >«w applied. - 

The Department has had frequent oc- 
casion to consider this question, and it 
has become an established rule, con- 
curred in by' the CivU Service Commis- 
sion and the Post Office Department, that 
clerks In post offices of the third pr 
royrth-elass are not employes of the Gov- 

master without regard tbdvil l«r\1ce 
rules and are paid at such j«Us as mav 
P« . *aTjeed upon by contract ;1>et»een 

ment law, credit for service has been de- 
-.. med in the cases of star-route mail car- 
-., Hers, special " 


L »- ML ' tl! "-'-"taWW^ 

" ns ' under the direction of the Se 

cr et»'SI" Corn- 

connection Viih the 

Charlea L Kindler, San Francitro. 

customs officer* relating to the col". 

. Fman. relieved from 
i I»rvena. Man., detailed to 
rganized Rei-errn f Firat 


.'Mrchant marine. . Every four yean 

t of Commerce for their ad- 
mm '* r * t,0 '> »»<» enforcement Each year the Bureau 
collect! and publishes comprehensive autistic, re- 
- Utmc to the merchant marine. 

?• -'':-• ' : " "''■'■:•''''■ ' •-. 

<4 /". '* r ""' or »iW* o/ (Ait »eriei, (he Cow- 

orrricc ",•--■ - ' ~ _ . ...,.• •*...:„ 

$U"-t Paily Publishing CorporatioB ■ ' .'•'•'"" '•' 

The action appealed from in affirmed. 

J Marine Corps Orders 

Ma j. W. P. Smith, upon the reporting «f 
hia relief, ahout July 1. detached M. B, 
Niv; Yird, Philadelphia, Pa., to Reeralt- 

". Kinsman, detached af. B., 

ler Reed General HoYpitalT 

of_A«ii»Unt Chief if "si 
Ceorre LeR. Trwin7 detailed 

Of A.»... _i :* 


ordered to temporary 

upon completion temporary 

, Special Senr- 

yw^^&^^zx I i?w?. tor . cf :** "^*" «*•* - 

tion at Birmingham. Ala 

adc promptly if they , show cause in this 

, purchasers who ad- order should not be issued a 

ir.t r«.rpi Area. *it B , t ». I Jirat Lieut. J. A. M.Shanc. aliened «• 
-""* • I *»\?. at H. B.. Kav, y.rd. Mar. l.l.nd. 

termatter I California. 

I Firat Lieut. E. A. P~- —i:— * • 

o a friend's car 
'tnt Ask Refund, v I of .*?; ?• .^'"'J*. * nd »^ ^Wri^'be! 

I Fii™"Ueut~'W."'*A. Waehtler. detached 
I ??: . X. <*»»««•. >a.. to Headquarters Ma- 

| lZ' 8u --^" D '«r«TwifTuiu'.u. su: I SlsSSin: c u - * * Uuh - ,0 "'^"^ 

per cent. 

centations and promises. • 

.."I therefore recommend that a fraud 

KeUon <C. C.\. 

rrr. net, I torinto. Nicararua. on June t&. 

*■- a t<endarn«Ti( 

rws that »hcn \ such 
theJconcern for reim- 
e b#"nt a form letter in 

naV.inf refund and we 

Nayy Orders 

~et. com- 
to Chief of Staff, to 

Chief, Aiiatic Fit. 

rbe.aeen't- I* then" in- J ^*-*^™:,\$«£n\Z'\>xZ : XZi Attache' 
I second test and if the I •?•, E ' nb "«y. Rio de Jsnerio. Bran). 

-. - -■ —.--..- ...- ^uuiu. win. «.i 

'.»na the <late the first San Frar.mce.' 

»' his car,. to the con- . Li * at - tymdr. Robert O. Clover. deL Bd 

L .1 :.._:__ . .. In»ntn and Snrv.i- V....: n . . ..' ... ": 

fake V refund. Unless ri !'r' h „1 r 'L?\ P \ 'ii 

*■ - • - 1 Ll#tlt Malc/ilm I 

r^jrcnl.wUl.not receive Lieut. Jo.eoh H. Sev.rvn. del. Kavy Yard. 
«». tbe/efore, bie the |.? B /« found. w a »h.: to tf. s. S. Caa.r. ' 

Vluded In 6id«r. 

»i- --_-~i-.. .-I 

»»e.»t » irgiria. 

.1 fon-dr. «;e&i- 

Win With Health 

determines the health. .' • 

. The bafis of every meal should be milk from .^ 

.?g> R of«/ Highest by the Health Department ;f 
- riionc POTOMAC 4000 -' V; ,;; .Jy^S. 

You are un-ited h intpect our plant ' ""-;-,'•. 

t T«'rnty-Sixth Slreet! *" 



•'.- TODAY'S 

* Page 


kAmy Officers Are Graduated 
^ ^ r[T rom General Service School 

^ Eighteen Pass With Honors and Thirl} -Seven 
•' With Dislinclioii in Course for Command 
v : * and General Slafl*. 

' and General Staff school of the General 

.OiS ~ J TV JiLimi 4 n 

.. are IS honor graduates and 37 dis- 
tinguished graduates, the Department of 
t. War has just announced. 
;'.: .The hat of graduates of the achool in- 

Bonor, follows: 

",. .1. Honor Graduates: -V. ... 
i-r ': Major Herbert H. Achesoh, Coast Ar- 

-^ jtiDery Corps. 

'/f. Major Harvey C. Allen, Coast Artil- 
•;, lery Corn*. . ■ .• "-i 

t", .. ' Major Boy S. Atwood, Coa$t Artillery 
...Corps. . 1 ■:.,.- 

„._Xtneers. - 
' ■ .. . Major James L. Bradley, Infantry.' 
, ;./ , pUajor Richard F, Cox, Coast Artillery 
~ ! .:? Corp- - - u -.. ' 

","i Major Sylvester D. Down*. Jr., Field 
;..!;. Artillery: . , C .".., . , t 

iptaio John B. Francis, Infantry. 

ajor Samuel A. Gibson, Infantry. 

Major Sidney Eriikso", Infantry. 

Major Arthur C. Evans, Infantry. 

Major d'Alary Feehet. Infantry. 

Major Benjamin G. Ferris, Infantry. 

Captain William Fisk, Infantry * 

Captain Paul H. French, Coast Artil- 
lery Corps. 

Major Andrew G. Cardner, Infantry. 

Major Robert C. Garrett, Coast Artil- 
lery Corps. 

Major Gcoigc S. Gay. Field Artillery. 

Major Robert A. Gillmore, Infantry. 

Major Joseph J. Gcace, Signal Corps. 

Major Carl Halla, Finance Depart- 
ment. ' . , ..-..= . 

Major Samuel F, Hawkins, Coast Ar- 
tillery Corps. 

Major Charles B. Hazeltine, Cavalry. 

Major Paul H. Herman, Coast Artil- 
lery Corps. 
Major Louis E. Hibbs, Field Artillerv. 

•: ..fineers. 

■ ^ Captain Thomas T. Handy, Field Ar» 
,',;tniery fc ' .--•-.•■- - 

.; c "' Captain Dale V. Hinman, Coast Artil- 


., ;.: Major Joseph M. S*ing\ Field ArtU- 

'W?""- Major CalTia F. Titos, Infantry. ' - - 
*'--■' Major Fred Ik-Wafter, Infaniry. 

.ngmeers. . •; '• - •. *>•■.--■.■<••■ 
. :•. Major B^scoe B. Woodruff, Infantry.* 

'■• :;\'O0ieerM.!Crmduated ; v ; . * ' ' •» •• »\ 
■f^WUh Dirtinction ;*-; '#--' <■■ 


Major Carl E. Honker, Coast Artillery 

Major Samuel R. Hopkins, Field Ar- 
tillery. v '." - ; - ■ r„ 

Major Eustis L. Hubbard, Cavalrv. 
Major Dean Hudnutt, Field Artillery. 
Major Thruston Hughes, Adjutant 
General's Department. , r .:- . / 
. Captain Robert Joerg.' jr.,' Infantry. ~ 
/; Major Byron Q. Jones, Air Corps. 
Major Ralph E. Jones, Infantry. 
Lieutenant Colonel Harry B- Jordan, 
Ordance Department. 
Major Hugh B. Keen. Infantry- 
Major William P. Kelleher, Infantry. 


jor Cuffor 

y? Air Corp. 


Topical Survey 

THIS vait organization ho 
* never been studied in detail 
a» one piece of adminiitrativc 
mechanitm. No coreprehentivc 
effort hai been mad* to liit it» 
multifarious activities, or la 
group them in such a way at to 



Bureau of Navigation 

, In thie tenet o/ erticlet •presenting a $ 

. Topical Suneu of the Government or. shoe* I 

, the practical eontaett between divisions and "3 

bureaut trrctpcctivt of their place in tkc od- 

; ., fmnufrafit-e organization. Croupt of artickt j 

have been pretexted explaining gotervment % 

r- . V l',* der . eack ° f the f Zoning toplet: >\ 

,.-.. First. Pubhe Health; itcond. Foreign Rc'm. t 

■*. lions; third, Education; fourth. Finance; fifth 

■ v .Con»errfl«io»; «u-f«, Indiirlry; uvtnth. Trant- 

..Portatxon; tighth. Taxation; ninth. Social 

c . Welfare; tenth. Trade Praeticet; and tin-. 

.■> t ..'»t*. Sac«ce.^Th€ pretent gronp dent, with 

t eaeral aetivttiet in connection teith Shipping. 

': By D. B. Carson, 

Commissioner. Bureau of Xavigation, .Department < 

,. ■■-.•' v'- Commerce. :.".'. -i 

\ HE Bureau of Navigation is responsible, ij 
t-eneral, for the enforcement of the laws aui 
. _ regulat.ons applying to the American m<i 
«;. n > -"• m,ru, . e .«'? d ^ American merchant f ea 
men. Certain special lines of <*ork falling with* 

issessed by thes 

-ral duties' of the Bureau of Navigation m 

Major Jobn.E. CreejC infantry."'' 

"A'r Corps. 

I«I77TaT »l 

-' _ pta .' n .? lmrr R - Lindroth, Infantry. 

^^%^ i , ot r \ 0tel>h 2: £»'7. FW* Artillery/: Jt. Army 
'*:$fc*lJ t * ifl &ty**jr. Eaaterday, Coast Ar.^ 8plaln } 

•Neill, Irish Free 

^.'aptain Frank V. McCoskrie, Infantry,' 
Ma^or Jameii A. MeGrath, Infantry, -i 

r fi'ffTMlr 

taxes, and other iederal, State and municipal charts 
the assessment and collection of tonnage ta*es; th 
entry and clearance of vessels at American ports; an 

mis Bureau also, supervises the enforcement <■ 
Javes^concerning neutrality, in a* far as they rela 1 

out lor military purposes. or in the tranVportation t>; 
'Til * V "cruUs or munitions. It also administer 
•th btvnse laws- reserving to American" vessels t v 

trflMTortatlon'bf cargoes and passen 

tlc.>~«iimerce of the United Slates. 

•*■—•"■•• r ray i i • 

<-»;.'-». n {War I* Cruhn. >'irld' „ 

Major Harry K Haalett. Inf.ntry. 
Major Ralph Hoapit.l, F*I<J Artille 
Major Harry C. Ingle*. Signal Cor 

• Lieut 

tajor JoJSikv. Lang, inf. nt l,. " 
leutenant ^olonel Aubrey Lippi 

Magruder, Infantry.' 

!«*■'"' Torrry B. M ai: h«-«.. Inr.,,7. vl" 

i«rf^; r i: ,0,d B - Mm * rudcr - C °"" Ar,i '- 

Cavi'r].? n " nt CO,0n<,, * " erb ' rt E M »™- 
£ aj > £ aroW E ,- Marr. Field Artillery. 

'«- Infaiilrv. 

pa'sag- J* '.'.l- n ^" , '.' nt of . rc F 'l»tio», povcrni 

St. Mi 

pcrior, -, i Ilr ,,. 

water* durinp regaTtaa'and marine' narM,-'- tVi 

eral p,,ot law^the I.., pr.vcnti^ The oven rf) 

rfi^w— 8 .""/ "?„; l, l fc "". ^«vcn,m ? the ahipmrrr 
...S and the settlement of their grievi 

Warfare StfviT '; /Port ' r - 0>"»M 
•Co^ '- ^- ">**'" Q«*rt t rmaster 

' fantry. . 

Major Join J. Stevens, Cavalry. , I 

. Infantry. 

Artillery - Corp.. 

Major Floyd R. Walt*, Infantxj-. 
Othrr Graduate, of Command 
And General Staff School 

.Graduate*: . t '■ - 

f*r?tr P ^ DTH :5 ) ^Cc«tArta- 
, 4r H " r ° MtP — "W.S. Marin. 
I K^!!i^^:.W.n,ry- : 


c ^n.„t Colonel WUli.™>.p ope ; J 

Major fc*ster D. BaVer, Infantry " 1 D ?5«rtmenL 
Major Alfred E. Balaam. C *«*>r Norman 

'natter Corps: . ...-v..—. 

ff>r the" J 2 

jvhom the Bureau 
'* Washington 

inii-t;i, n(T4 

>«<* on the Great Lakes, eoltc 
Shipping Commissioners rv „ 

These commissioners r- ->"-'- -• "V**™"™ ^ "' 

muss-loner of .Vavigati. 


or owners of 
"seamen. ,-■» 

«.I^f. ^°T missi0nCr * or ih ™ wprc.cnUlivc 1 
%etsels entering port to see 0..t .£ 

Properly paid o^.H V „, '"^ e ..^ m ™ 
receive money from the sh!„ B |«„ y ar! 

. '" shipping companies and, 

t v C»PJrirht I»»7 k, Tke L« 

Use of Mails Denied 

fat ion for Motors. 

The M-M Laboratories of Chic 

Captain Henry P. BlarA., Infantry " « a ^° r Frank A - Sloan, infantn- 

Capuin Oliver J. Bond.' KcSst " J 1 .*** E,,il V ' Sm «C S' 

Artillery Corps. >- ." - ■< • vo "" Lieutenant Colonel n J. pi 

Major Allans. Boyd. £,,«,,„<„ l^J^>- "^ ^^ 

p| • » I believe will b 

L/enied ue not dri, K 

viFe the concei 
out value and 
cordance «ith 
form letter in 
that the comp 
"Mfcrd of can - «>» "mntor 
is requested to 
hia car and on 

OlOrs. ^"'nc Tet 

_ " "At the hcai 

f <-u: ._. ... attorneys for ti 

»• »»-. cent of the coi 

of a a refund but 1 

Infant"" - n " Hu ^ -«• Brown, 

I ■ - ^ ajor . Charlts s - Caff, ry, Infaiilrv. 

.._• Artillery Corps. 
, ' Captain Joseph Church. Infanti ! 

^ ^....aster Corp* 

" Major Charles E. ( 
■:.j, :. Major Fred H. Col 

• Cavalry. •*• -J -- • 

T.\ Major William L. Culberson. Infant "' 

.tain Adelberl B. SU 
,Ma JO r Henry H. Stic) 

General. Harry S. I " In casp s « 
- ost Office De- J M . v . st "T" and i 

| «ral"s De 

nrf«e Ad- 
Walbacn7Coa* s t Ar- 

;.>>■ --—-%, 

Iuiiery. - ; •- .. ^. . ■■■<•*£- 

.'-. Major William i"lV."t\vii" Jr fVC=u 

charge against 

lii.Cf.v W y" f or i , 

"rclir.o. . j ^ hlc n it is state 

"stomers are lead to „,.,„ 

I customer is still 

cern.~ The con 
Apartment. - : '.: " """?■? ,vrananee tonjer a form t, 

Colonel Ccorgc Williams C avalrv tha < {wm is utu 

Major Arthur If u-.i„r >^'-'P- stated they will 

istomer an: 
, ...c concern (I 

Jlajor Edward If. W of 

'Major Gordw. R. V ou „-_ r " ~\ Lct - 
Knrir.rcr,. * ° U " K ;..5°'J? .«/ |. .„ Director 1 

. Mnjfr La„[vr,c IV v .''".»""-""•' - I ""Atvirdinr to 

' " Mi rrpml*. further 
. tuf a manilnte 'u-as I 
tifti by Pan Fa as 
t following cabinet I 

Knitter for Foreign 
6, Minister /or Mil- 
/ui Lin. Minister of 
> Pu, Minister of Fi. 
dinister of Justice; 
t Education; Chang 
f of Industry-; Liu ' 
IJer of Agriculture 
Concurrently Minis- 

*y reports that an. 
I same date appoints 
j«f Secretary to the 

nay state* that an. 
»d* of the iuump. 
e 20 by Premier and 
" Cabinet. 

e Held \ 
n> by Press 

■tries Agree to 
osillon in 

• ill entertain nut 
tional press exhibi- 
Consul at Colorne, 
formed the Depart- 
^cording to a slate- 
by the Department. 
» in full text: 
una! press exhibi- 
Ci.lo^ne, Germany, 
. IfcX Already 49 
>»H their desire to 

•>e has undertaken 
exposition, and has 
fupport of all the 

printing houses in 

office department. 

■lefraph companies 

ill also participate 

jx.xition is to rep- 
eiitirety ax a $ni<m 
\*1. and economic 
~al means and eon- 
ised in the various 
1 net i«n, from the 
iw material 'to the 
he reader's -stable, 

..:- • * , . :. 
f. divided jnto'^lZ 
first main division. 
'"t«;spapor, ; yespec-" . 
orical de\elopraent 
iwW service.^the - 
^^advertisement ;' 

1 . be devoted re- <: 
nllcal. book-print. . 
pment and acccs- , ; 
s of the pi"***, the" 
n count lies^pres* J ■ •-' 
it, preys an£ ad- I V' 
ioiVrCj pajicr riiaiv j!^ 
ana Dnotiwianhv. J ^; 

r.«.mi..i n..a-uj^> 1 i „;..,!, |,i«n drun ,l 

of the «•'»!*« ^« Indu-try I g-ross kilo), states a dole Zn.m '. 
of the Rio <:iuml r Valley mercial Attache William floa?. at B., 

3C>. fr'-m O.I»-i pi-s-r* If f 

r-e 'ti>t ; pure lard 

(item 25>, fr„in O.lo to n.02 peso. 



car owners 

say Buickwill betAe/rnext car 

A general and impartial survey of automobile , 
conducted by a great organization, shows that 34,, 
^other cars intend to change to Buick next time they buy a car. 
?W owners have compared their cars whh Buick— in perform- 
ance, m economy m comfort, luxury and dependabiliry, J 
they have deaded that Buick offers greater valul 

They havedri^n Buicks, and know the flexibility, power and 
effiaency of Bu,ck's famous six<ylinder VaH^-Head en 
which is vibralumless beyond belief at any speed. 

' KvamcnA *•> aQ..!^.f. _* •• 

^•«-s- rf«b« IK « ^^ „ iii-^7 ~. 



Mj - Bl " ,CK * ,Ll BUJ "> THEM 

U ■•;>BWCK motor <:bMPANv, flint, Michigan; v 

-• T- ~-' D ' uti °**!Gtritnl}l<,iortCorpr.T,.tion : .. n " -. 

.ro^o*.«ii rieforic,. -McLAUGHLIN-BUICK, (Mair.. Out 


WEI>M>I)AY, JIM' 22. 1«>; 

i Issued 
jj Military 
nt of China 

| Stair Is Ail. I 
I b'v Anieri- 

\iiii6iiiiccm1 j 

Contractors fur Air Mails Arc I'laniiin, 

; 1 1 15) 

j Cant. I). F. Sellers 

1 oOnrratc Vassal "crCarrxinu; l.inos ■%■ i , «" i 

z • i Gained to Lonimund 

islmil I'ottmastvr Gvnvrut Suss Tnmsronliiini- ^nn/.,.,l C,„.wli.i,n 

/.« Forvnmnvr of Other Svhv.lulv.1 Svrrirr. ^1 )CC ,<l ' ^i 11 '" 11 °» 

\ssunip* Office 
-Iinit; Pan Tu 

IS ami 2">. re* pee- 
ing Tso Lin upon 
u-ralissimo in com- 
- >nd naval force* 
■lilir, ant] by Tan 
g nine cabinet ap- 
,-nunced by the De- 
in summary form 
■• of cabled advices 
Minister, to China, 

\U text of the De- 
i.i" has informed the 
»t Chang Tso, 
as Generalissimo, 
er date of June \<, 
ary government of 
.' which the follow- 

i-simo of the Army 

\C:„f,„„,,t f, 

senger service Ik'.ucoii All-jijinii|ue. •■ 
New Mexico, and !.<»« Anjrclcs. is being 
proposed. He recalled that it take* a lail- 
road train 12 hours to mat.- thi- ttip 
and said thiit a plane won.. I m.ilf it in 
only a few hnir... lie said thai in the 
cveiit thi> ri'Ute is taken ovit i-y private ' 
rontiBctols. the P..>t tiff.. . IVpuituifjt j 
Mill no doubt .i.a>4£Uialt* a a;i mail ' 
service. • 

Rcjiorts Were tm.fiiii ed by Mr. Clover ■ 
to the effect that lh>- Hi-, ire and Xa- \ 
tional Air Tianspoit Companies plan to ' 
inaugurate an air pa«singcr scr\i<r over ' 
the transcontinental air mail iou:e fivin ' 
San Kiam i-i o lo New York City. He said 
he if confident the opeialion of such < 
service will be profitable. 

Although he raid that he had no in- • 
formation regarding the future plans of J 
the Pilcaiin. Inc., of rhiladcljiiiia, con- | 

Quarantine Proposed ! 
Against Orange Vi orm 

Iii.mtI Reported at- Having 
Appeared in Grapefruit 
. .Grove* in Te\a*. 

[Contimird from 1'nge /.] 
fruit crop to be matured during the sea- 
son 1927-2S. This would necessitate ie- 

tia.'.ors for the New V<rk-At':.r.!a air j 
mail |i>ute. fur night flying, he »s confi- 
dent this lit m will follow in the path of | 

others in dcvciopii -g ii n.M.i:. ":■' aviation. 1 
TI.U lout., la- con:, i ■■••'. v. ,".; !■!• ;:: fji- ■ 

.i:i"ii a> m»>m 

t'.-.U-v. :l. v 

nuuays if t tnii]ile'.i-ii. 

Mr. CI :i'-i. ■•.\|it--ii ;i.i i>p".l:;i<n 

that tin ;n..|.i.-.|..i! i..- •.! ...'.;'...-, ;i..i.>- 
ptdintioii <>»cr r«i!i".id 'a'c- will In- jus- 
tifed by the f \fi ■•' n;i ! ••:i . iiijr of time. 
He c.-limatiil :!.!• a\<a'.!i>n faic- 
Wouli! Ik- alniut oi.c-tlind i:it:bi-r than 
■ ailioad laic. 

Comni-'icial a - "iii!i"H. i.< >aiil. I. a- b t -.-n 
rf.aid.d by the fa.- :b..t :)., ;...i.:\ e ,:.. 
••rally hn>- Ik-c-ii fi:«b:« ?.•••! bj -. [■■■>-»• avia- 
toi * v. bo ilu "ail -*tut.*" ai-ii ";i ; !-ciifj^ 
riding." Wluii tl.'s |lr. ••••<■ ff n\ iatimi is 
parsed. Mr. tlln\i-r said, nil pn-sr:ij;cl- 
caiivinL- will come !•• May.. 

Chinese Republic, j iu ,aily itap-^ The |tiowii>. accoid- 
: the existence of I ing to this plan, would be reimbursed 

"hinese Republic in 
lental function? and 
If which should be 
e of the nation un- 

lilitary Government 
et efricera to assist 
rryint; out govern- 

>er of cabinet ©ffi- 
•»"s: Premier, Min- 

ind Labor. 

was prpM-iiti-d by R. B. rieatrcr. a banker ' 
nl 11.-.W.1.-'. il':-. Ti:». K»ur hundrrd thou- ' 
sand at res in the valley, now under irri- I 
Kition, aie potential grapefruit onhards. | 
Sixty thnu.-and ariij ate now in citrus | 
tree.*. 3.5tW of which were in beaiinc this ! 
season. The enimaled ]iroduc!i"n of I 
these- tiees is I,S'»0 cat loads of grapc- 
Trijit anr.ually. The produetinn was val- 
ued nl Stf'Utl |K-r acre, or Jl'.iii.'ii.lMJO for 
the existing aeieajre. 

Inspection to Be Made 

. Ill ITtfU ill rUlFnAWTM ! 

Sflrc-lotI a» SiHTt*s«.or to I!< ;tr 
Ailniira Julian L. . 

War ]ui;or<l is (Tim-m 

Coiiiin.'tKM tl H:tltli»Iii|» "W i — 
foil-in"" and Al-n Tr;ili — 

j) :fl "" \j;lllli illlllfll." 

V. s.N..: ... ;;... -, • :: : .!..:;-..., 

L latlime . !■;.?•.;•! ,.;' :l ; - .-n. ,-nl 

Service Si ■: ■ .. .. :• -.;..•.. ally* 

June 21 b •.- S..,-. i„ » ' n; :;.. Nxvv, 
Curtis D. W . 

Admiral .-■•ii, Se. .• . -i ■■■' \\ ;*»,. :• 

rCji'ained. . ''/ ),»,: n.j a --.<<: tr ht- 
lelieved fi :r: !..- ],-.-• :,> ,-.-n. .-.• i- : .,f 

the Special So;-. ... <■;.::■..; :. :>.:■; a',^ 

of his con:.::;.:..! <■;' 1':.;:..: States fi-irt-a 
in Nicaiai;'i.i. «;j> to !»„• eri.-u, i!;::<-. 
of his daui'btei'. l.aura. who i« in Pan- 
ama. He is iioi maliy cue fur a chance 
of HFsitrumeii:. ha\ iiijf served about two 
years in his present command, il was 

Select i-d P«r Promotion. 

The Selection R»ard of the Navy. Sec- 
retary Wilbur said, has selected Captain - 
Sellers for promotion to the ranV of rear 
admiral, which promotion, before it be- '• 

„Tbe full text of a statement relating 
to f'aptain Sellers' record, made public " 

State fund«. 

Other re pte.-cntatives maintained that 
the pest, beinE a tropical one. would \t 
killed in the natural course of events by 
frost and that cleanup work would be j 
Unnecessary. • | 

In meeting this new menace to the ! 
fruit industiies of the Southern United 
Slates, the Hcpartmenl will undertake 
to eradicate this pest, and all quarantine 
and control measures will be based on 

this idea. Purinp- tb#» last Trwintti tVin 1 


handover Kiap«-fiuit and destroyed It. 
The same measures were taken on ^the 

Laiul fliers and Indian 

The Secretary, of the Interior, Dr. 
Hubert Hoik, stated orally on June 21 
that he would leave Washington about 
the middle of July for his annual inspec- 
tion tour of western reclamation projects, 
Indian institutions, land ofTiics. Geologi- 
cal Survey stations, and other outposts 
f the Department. He exjM-cts tc be 
one about six weeks. i 

Dr. Work said that he would confine 
his trip to the Slates west of. Chicago, 
north of Kansas and east of Idaho, and 

frsignedby Premier j Brownsville under the most praiseworthy 

Bilnation in. Denver on July 15. 


......,>,.». . curing the last wi „ visit , t some of the , 

Department entomologists Cl ,„,. g( . Si in coimt . ctir , n wilh tl)e Vo- 
i studying the s.tual.on ir i the year RUlvey of thost j.^titutions , 
le ickioi. and arc now in Mex- , tti „ ^ u . gun by thc Bui .,. au ot 
ico to get additional data on fruit fly CBt5on on j u ) y i. 

Captain Sellers Was born in" Austin, 
Tex., in 1874, and appointed to the Naval 
Academy from the State of Texas in 
WO. lie was appointed a captain in 

During the World War Captain Sellers 
commanded the battleship "Wisconsin" 
and the transport "Agamemnon." In 
191U he served on duly in the Office of 
Naval Operations and later served on the 
staff of the President of the Naval "War 
College.' In 1920 Captain Sellers served 
in the Bureau of Navigation and in 1S21 
he was selected as the aide to the Scere-' 
tary.of the .Navy. .„: ,. -.'.•,. 
, After serving as aide to the Secretary 

In command of the new naval training 
station at San Diego,^Calif. At present " 

ffM P^Mifitla i te 

l lfWP.Hlul iMiWJmm'IIMJIi 

basis for 

»Hy fixed. -.1.^-,. 
i and mandates 
e, 1P27," as «1" 

Iure. On the ba«i* of the- '^formation 
brought out at tl#t hearing 1 all other 
I data a^ailnbV, the ^T'eileral ..orticultural 

°',/'!"'' B * t" j Board w ; ll nukr it* r»i -omma-nrlatluna to Tbe imn of luip<'rl u..!y •.•■. ««it»:i-, 

kale mi) j the Secretary at an early datc^as to^uar- foodstuffs have been led-ucd by • a 

y speeially ap- J „ n jj lie an( j con t ro l measn j" "' Colombian decree effective June J0..f->r 

. -- 1 The value of the grapevyf induslrr gross kilo),"»tates a cable from. A- 

On Certain ruoil^ti 


line a mandate was 



Rice (item. 32), from' 0.04 to 0.01 peso;.: ~ 

beans (item 41), from 0.04 to 0.01 peso; . 
sugar' (item St), crude, from 08 tf «0I "> 
I«-sn; »ug»r (item 3^)/rcfln*d, 0- 1 * *» , 
0.05 prro: uhtat (lour- liv^i f »« /■" ■ m 
0.08 to" (iJ04 i--»o; wilt meat JiteW 17), . - 
from 0.10 lo 0.06 j**o; pot*toe»*(H«a» ^ 
S6), from 0.03 peso to free list; port lard ^ 
" P«*P 

^^mmmm^wispi^&mwmsmi? 1 *** 

/t"TIinr.!r.fT ?HlM|1vT.' 
Ftai.lSHII. 'Vllll'ill !'•• 

IMM,,a **^lllll1Mli 

illl I 

Radio Station Offers 
f To End Suit if Gi\ en 
^- Lower Frequency 

^Attorney Suggest* Abandon- 
' 'menl of Proceeding for 
;:- ; '" Injunction. 

Objection Expressed 

.-»»*•'..'"";. i .. ■■~ Jr ~~~z 
Commission at Hearing Told 
/ _\Su lions Now on Band Give 
*.??'".-■' Best Service. 

.' ICoMliimtd /row r*gr J.] 
wc«rved $822^55 in dividend*. It was 
--- ~i.;.,.j «V«» ' <VU did not Include 

have been beard. Placing WMSG *i low 

property, be wi 

': . federal Attorneys Attend. 
•',' : iB* M. Webster and Porter R. Chandler, 
'special assistants to the Attorney Gen- 
eral, assigned by the Department of 
Justice as attorneys for the Radio Com- 
-':' minion, appeared at the hearing before 
the Commission. Mr. Webster in a state- 
''neat said that the Commission wan 
within its rifhts in making the June 15 
"* allocation to WMSG without a prelim- 
' ' Inary hearing and that the Commission 
■>j«t bo time . exceeded its rirhts and 

C"? James Lundy, funeral manager and 

. J atudio director of WMSG, testified that 

• the etatior.'a relegation to a low wave 

T had resulted in depriving it of the re- 

'lUSprvsi'tilallvfllUunn lit lntib^ue Hill 'Mandate 1 

For i nif\iii*> Air Srrrict* of iUn-rvumviiX t\ .> 

• r ; l)r«a?ijff. 

h'arorf Croaliiifi DriMirlnu-iil of Air. If it li Svirilarv as •! f\|»«riimi 
Membrr of Prcshlvnf* Cabinet. } . M l ' ""K- 

ran X) 

Representative Bloom rP< New • h..p fi..m Xewii.yndi.nd u. li eland ami ' l),., iar | 1 , 1 .. lvt . 
York City, in a \wittc-. >tan mcM un j in IX'T l.y I.indb. igh and by ChaiuUr- : 'r <,r,,n ' 111 \ 
June 21. announced that he will introduce ^ tin: <"•■.•■-, .». «.,.;, ,■ K>id ha.- negotiated • Vised of T«' 
a bill, when Cuiigrc...- convene-., to m ;,u- : the N«-itl. IVc fi..n, the ait; other! : 

a Department of Ail. ui::!>ii.g rln air j flights aio in the- offing on both the At- | Can X) 

services of the (;.,\« inn,-ni. v ii*i it* | luutic and the Pacific. Sleeping car fa- i 4 

bead a Secrnaty of Air with the i;,nk | cililie* and commercial transit by air i ^ 

•in! pay of ether lnciul-ci.- i.f il.i Call- J to Kuiopo and 'Asia and South America ' Cnl)iliet Is 
inct. : aie in- s'.i anger dieams of today than ; , ' \ 

The .statement, in part. follows: j weie the airplane to those who scoffed at ! - ~ 

"The Anuiican |>c.-fV aie l>c».'iii:iiiif: \ Trowb: idgcV 'Daii'i* <;rccn and Y.:r ' ... ... . *, 

to lialize that this cinjiili\ , » |,:i- r ti|;i- i" I h '>"' Minhinc' .- .• ill-, ndc- :, K i> or *-' ,:, "K ' >» '-'U 

Cnl>inet Is 

at Make in the delay in icnnniziiij; the '■ '•"' .'iil'inarinc jiictured in jn::ij.'ii;u!i<in ' af> Cit'llirali- 

im)>ortaiic« of air wrvicc ar a powerful ' n JuW Venu? 'Hi.tjlto I^>aj;ue; Viulcr | . . 

factor in unifird emit ml in national dc- )" 1 ' ^a' that thiillid the imagination ' Appoinlc 

fenne comparable to the Army and the ' n ° UI >outhful day?. j . — *£ 

Kavy. America is already au|Hrior to j "I ►h;i!l ha\e a bill formulated in time ' ManuatrA of Jul 
foreign countnef in hs air mails: it it- ! W |>iesentation when ('.meres, meets. I.tlvelv ifsued hv'S 

ke over I l >>w ^ nK „„•„., £-) 
auue* now ax- • ■> , , „ , '■• 
to the Departments of War. m * nd of »" ,n * *! 
ivy. Post Office, Commerce and any j of the Chinese V, 
America we are splitting haii* and wast- ] other federal acencier, an well an ruper- i ''" u * F Piemier mall 
in* time and money in overlapping Army. ! scde th<> National Advisory. Committee • pointment*. wn* j 
Navy and other air services, while sev for Aeronautics. I partment 'of Sial« 

eral European countries have unified "The functions of the Department ' June 2 ' "I"" 1 rn-*^ 
their air services and, in commercial would be to promote consti uctive de- f ,om the Ameiicai 
avistion, have established a network of velopir.ent of aeronautics by researches. J" nn Van ■*• Maei^ 
passensrer planes. facl-cathering' and fact-di.-tributinir and Following is the; 

f. j. . » ,. n fart-using:, to regulate procurement and partmeni's vtatemet 

CoordmatedA,rroHrr . maintensnee of all ntnessaiy airc.rt. Minister .Ma, Muri 

Favored by Mr. Bloom aircraft parts and aircraft accessories Department today;* 

"A department of air at Washington "/'*' *<l ul P m « - nl. to have administrative upon assuming offn 
would coordinate the airpower of cnBr ^ 1 * °« ■» the Government's air issued a mandate ui 
America. It would bring about the use J*"T" , an<1 to coord, n»'<' «'th other -organiiinit the mil 
of air to its great advantage both gov- 'f""* 1 ■scncies . and coopeiate with Chinese Repul.lic.~V 
ernmentally and commercially. It would 5J, V 1 ", """"ercial enterprises in ing is a summaiy: 
eliminate the present duplication of sen-- "". u f hu,I,,,n P »f •»«? industry and the Article I. Genera 

ices of the existing Federal agencies. It m ' , " !en " nc * . of a . hl K h * rade efficiency, ^d N , vy shall cor 
would provide an orderly, coherent, eco-' . LO ? r<II »» ll n* *'ih all other services naval forces of the 


of licenses, rules 

" but in reduced amount, was reported by M* bad the knowledge and experience of ,. na , 

V that the resulu'of the June 15 alloca- First Army Corps air service in the ' 

;r ; the Federal Badio Commission. 

trying out govenei 
ill protect all rig 
enjoyed by the peoi 

-f the DX {or outside) reception hctero- 

are more or 

in. i hi -j 
. .jblish cabii 
ilissimo • in Cf 
'"' mental affairs.- 

Article IV. Xum 
s in co- tc,s shall be as foil ; 
er Bureau. It 'sters for Foreign / 

.. ter of Agriculture 
govern- ;Article V. Vandi 

ri' P'* in tn *' ** I ^ J !' 1 

tactics, command, communications and comparable to the alms and scope and vided however, th» 

-!3if v Complaint* "have been heard on the ] reT^aisVancc'ind^patVorof iea ireaT, 


'broadcast J>*nJ, but only one suit has 
• -'-^^e*n^filed"'ag'»inst the Commission; said 
;■ rJyUlIr< .'Ilellows. jjhis the Commission Is 
".«^*i^*P» r *d to j&ntest vigorously, he added. 

■of ion of Air Mail .. >•■..■- . 
mSedared Successful ' .'-,"" 
^V^ff'l* 1 '"'??!""" 1 *ig"iousij, fie suueu. I .. -.And now we are operating air mails 
i.f. ^Stations" which have broadcast appeals "across and cris-cross the continent: 

emy at Annapolis. It would detach some 
of its units, by approval of the President, 
for any acojee with the Army and Navy 
or for any -tJ^.j-iiBl defense operations. 

"This odk^a^ of scope is. of course, 
tentative pending 'consultation*. -'with 

would hav \ embody sjit-cific details 
with respci^o personnel, equipment, 
licenses, aerial routes, reset ve air forces 
and other subjects. I have sketched 
briefly what I have in mind, for formula. 

not come within thi 
Article VI. 'Orga 
sonnel of cabinet an< 
jstries shall be apec 
'Article VII. Suji 
promulgated prio